Advertisement

Sādhanā

, 44:113 | Cite as

Experimental studies on structure of airblast spray in crossflow

  • Anubhav SinhaEmail author
  • R V Ravikrishna
Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

The present investigation is focused on experimental studies on the structure of airblast spray in crossflow. Atomizer is at a higher pressure than ambient and the airblast gas is expected to exhibit features generally found in under-expanded gas jets. High-speed images are captured using shadowgraphy technique. Certain wave-like structures observed in the near-nozzle region are attributed to shock–vortex interactions, generally observed in under-expanded gas jets. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis has been carried out using these images. POD mode shapes clearly show signatures of shock–vortex oscillations and frequencies close to the screeching frequency observed in under-expanded jets. The POD modes are compared for different conditions and the significance of dynamic structures and their temporal behavior is discussed. Finally, a regime map is also proposed to characterize spray behavior in crossflow.

Keywords

Spray in crossflow Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) under-expanded jet shock–vortex interaction shock-oscillation Mach disc screeching jet spray regimes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank for the financial support provided by the GATET programme of the Aeronautics Research & Development Board (ARDB), Government of India, for this work. The authors also thank Prof. Satya Chakraborty, and Dr. Ramgopal from IIT Madras for the help in POD analysis used in this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Lefebvre A H and Ballal D R 2010 Gas Turbine Combustion 3rd ed., CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu P K, Kirkendall K A, Fuller R P and Nejad A S 1997 Breakup processes of liquid jets in subsonic crossflows. J. Propuls. Power 13(1): 64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu P K, Kirkendall K A, Fuller R P and Nejad A S 1998 Spray structures of liquid jets atomized in subsonic crossflows. J. Propuls. Power 14(2): 173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee K, Aalburg C, Diez F J, Faeth G and Sallam K A 2007 Primary breakup of turbulent round liquid jets in uniform crossflows. AIAA J. 45(8): 1907–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sallam K A, Aalburg C and Faeth G M 2004 Breakup of round nonturbulent liquid jets in gaseous crossflow. AIAA J. 42(12): 2529–2540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mazallon J, Dai Z and Faeth G M 1998 Aerodynamic primary breakup at the surface of nonturbulent round liquid jets in crossflow. AIAA Paper 716 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aalburg C, van Leer B, Faeth G M and Sallam K A 2005 Properties of nonturbulent round liquid jets in uniform gaseous cross flows. Atomization Sprays 15: 271–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Inamura T 2000 Trajectory of a liquid jet traversing subsonic airstreams. J. Propuls. Power 16(1): 155–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schetz J A and Padhye A 1977 Penetration and breakup of liquids in subsonic airstreams. AIAA J. 15(10): 1385–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sinha A, Prakash S R, Raghunandan and Ravikrishna R V 2013 Experimental investigation of jet dispersion in a cross flow. In: National Propulsion Conference, IIT Madras, India, Feb. 21–23Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prakash R S, Sinha A, Raghunandan B N, Tomar G and Ravikrishna R V 2015 Breakup of volatile liquid jet in hot cross flow. Procedia IUTAM, 15: 18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ng C L, Sankarakrishnan R and Sallam K A 2008 Bag breakup of nonturbulent liquid jets in crossflow. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 34: 241–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leong M Y, McDonell V C and Samulesen S 2000 Mixing of an airblast atomized fuel spray injected into a crossflow of air, NASA/CR-2000-210467 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sinha A, Surya Prakash R, Madan Mohan A and Ravikrishna R V 2015 Airblast spray in crossflow—structure, trajectory and droplet sizing. Int. J. Multiphase Flows 72: 97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sinha A and Ravikrishna R V 2017 LES of spray in crossflow—effect of droplet distortion. Int. J. Spray. Combust. Dyn. 9(1): 55–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lynch A, Batchelor R G, Kiel B, Miller J, Gord J and Reeder M 2011 Spray characteristics of a pressure-swirl fuel injector subjected to a crossflow and a coflow. Atomization Sprays 21: 625–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brandt M, Rchner M and Schmitz G 1998 An experimental and numerical study of kerosine spray evaporation in a premix duct for gas turbine combustors at high pressure. Combust. Sci. Technol. 138(1): 313–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sinha A, Prakash S, Madan Mohan A and Ravikrishna R V 2016 Experimental studies on evaporation of fuel droplets under forced convection using spray in crossflow methodology. Fuel 164: 374–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Roshko H W and Liepmann A 2007 Elements of Gasdynamics. Dover PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Donaldson C D and Snedeker R S 1971 A study of free jet impingement. Part 1. Mean properties of free and impinging jets. J. Fluid Mech. 45(2): 281–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sommerfeld M 1994 The structure of particle-laden, underexpanded free jets. Shock waves 3(4): 299–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sommerfeld M 1990 The influence of solid particles on the structure of supersonic free jet flows. In: AIP Conference Proceedings, AIP, vol. 208, No. 1, pp. 745–750Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sommerfeld M and Kurian J 1995 Droplet behaviour in underexpanded supersonic jets. In: Shock Waves at Marseille III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buchmann N A, Atkinson C and Soria J 2012 Ultra-high-speed tomographic digital holographic velocimetry in supersonic particle-laden jet flows. Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(2): 024005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kihm K D and Chigier N 1991 Effect of shock waves on liquid atomization of a two-dimensional airblast atomizer. Atomization Sprays 1: 113–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim T K, Son S Y and Kihm K D 1998 Instantaneous and planar visualization of supersonic gas jets and sprays. J. Flow Vis. Image Process. 5: 95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Park B K, Lee J and Kimhm D 1996 Comparative study of twin-fluid atomization using sonic or supersonic gas jets. Atomization Sprays 6: 285–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Edgington-Mitchell D, Oberleithner K, Honnery D R and Soria J 2014 Coherent structure and sound production in the helical mode of a screeching axisymmetric jet. J. Fluid Mech. 748: 822–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Manning T and Lele S 1998 Numerical simulations of shock–vortex interactions in supersonic jet screech. In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, p. 282Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Panda J 1998 Shock oscillation in underexpanded screeching jets. J. Fluid Mech. 363: 173–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Panda J 1999 An experimental investigation of screech noise generation. J. Fluid Mech. 378: 71–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Panda J and Seasholtz R G 1999 Measurement of shock structure and shock–vortex interaction in underexpanded jets using Rayleigh scattering. Phys. Fluids 11(12): 3761–3777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Spraying Systems 2018 Automatic and Air Atomizing Spray Nozzles. Product Catalogue, Spraying SystemsGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kosambi D D 1943 Statistics in function space. J. Indian Math. Soc. 7: 76–88MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Berkooz G, Holmes P and Lumley J L 1993 The proper orthogonal decomposition in the analysis of turbulent flows. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 25: 539–575MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Constantinos H 2014 Investigation of break-up process of liquids and downstream spray characteristics in air-blast atomisers. PhD dissertation, Imperial College, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Prakash R, Sinha A, Tomar, G and Ravikrishna R V 2018 Liquid jet in crossflow—effect of liquid entry conditions. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 93: 45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations