, 44:19 | Cite as

Bacterial based admixed or spray treatment to improve properties of concrete

  • SHWETA GOYALEmail author


The capability of calcite precipitation by microbes is a well-known natural phenomenon and is now successfully employed to improve properties of concrete. The calcite precipitation by microbes will be affected by the process in which bacteria is introduced into concrete. The present study highlights different ways of microbial incorporation into concrete and its effect on the properties of resultant concrete. The bacteria were introduced into concrete either during casting or curing of concrete. The efficiency of the proposed microbial treatment was monitored in terms of strength development, water impermeability, pH of the pore solution, microstructure and level of CaCO3 precipitated. It was observed that both admixed treatment or spray treatment during curing were effective in calcite precipitation. The procedure involving spraying of bacterial culture onto concrete surface was efficient as well as economical.


Biomimicry concrete microbes curing calcium carbonate precipitation strength 


  1. 1.
    Benyus J M 2002 Biomimicry: innovation inspired by nature. New York: Harper PerennialGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chafetz H S and Buczynski C 1992 Bacterially induced lithification of Microbial Mats. SEPM Soc. Sediment. Geol. 7(3): 277–293Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Achal V, Mukherjee A and Reddy M S 2011 Microbial concrete: a way to enhance the durability of building structures. J. Mater. Civil Eng. 23(6): 730–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Achal V, Mukherjee A and Reddy M S 2013 Biogenic treatment improves the durability and remediates the cracks of concrete structures. Constr. Build. Mater. 48: 1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaur G, Dhami N K, Goyal S, Mukherjee A and Reddy M S 2016 Utilization of carbon dioxide as an alternative to urea in biocementation. Constr. Build Mater. 123: 527–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tiano P, Biagiotti L and Mastromei G 1999 Bacterial bio-mediated calcite precipitation for monumental stones conservation: methods of evaluation. J. Microbiol. Methods 36: 139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lopez J, Rodríguez-Navarro J, Dominguez-Vera J M and Garcia-Ruiz J M 2003 Influence of lysozyme on the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Kinetic and morphological study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67: 1667–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Muynck W, Belie N and Verstraete W 2010 Microbial carbonate precipitation in construction materials: a review. Ecol. Eng. 36: 118–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Achal V, Mukherjee A, Basu P C and Reddy M S 2009 Lactose mother liquor as an alternative nutrient source for microbial concrete production by Sporosarcina pasteurii. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36: 433–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhong L and Islam M R 1995 A new microbial process and its impact on fracture remediation. In: 70th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bang S S and Ramakrishnan V 2001 Microbiologically enhanced crack remediation. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Industrial Application of Microbial Genomes, Daegu, Korea, pp. 3–13Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dhami N K, Reddy M S and Mukherjee A 2012 Improvement in strength properties of ash bricks by bacterial calcite. Ecol. Eng. 39: 31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    De Muynck W, Debrouwer D, De Belie N and Verstraete W 2008 Bacterial carbonate precipitation improves the durability of cementitious materials. Cem. Concr. Res. 38: 1005–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Varenyam A, Mukherjee A, Goyal S and Reddy M S 2012 Corrosion prevention of reinforced concrete with microbial calcite precipitation. ACI Mater. J. 109(2): 157–164Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maheswaran S, Dasuru S S, Rama Chandra Murthy A, Bhuvaneshwari B, Kumar V R, Palani G S, Iyer N R, Krishnamoorthy S and Sandhya S 2014 Strength improvement studies using new type wild strain Bacillus cereus on cement mortar. Curr. Sci. 106: 50–57Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghosh P, Mandal S, Chattopadhyay B D and Pal S 2005 Use of microorganism to improve the strength of cement mortar. Cem. Concr. Res. 35(10): 1980–1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ramachandran S K, Ramakrishnan V and Bang S S 2001 Remediation of concrete using microorganisms. ACI Mater. J. 98(1): 3–9Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    IS: 12269, Specification for 53 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement, 1987Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    IS: 383, Specification for Course and Fine Aggregates from natural sources for concrete, 1970Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Achal V, Mukherjee A and Reddy M S 2010 Biocalcification by Sporosarcina pasteurii using corn steep liquor as the nutrient source. Ind. Biotechnol. 6(3): 170–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    IS: 10262, Indian Standard Guidelines for Concrete mix proportioning, 2009Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    IS: 516, Indian Standards Specifications: Methods for tests for strength of concrete, 1959Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    DIN 1048, Testing of Hardened Concrete Specimens Prepared in Moulds, Deutsche Normen, Part 5, 1991Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. In: 17th Edition American Public Health Association, Washington, 1989Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Achal V, Mukherjee A and Reddy M S 2010 Characterization of two urease-producing and calcifying Bacillus spp. Isolated from cement. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 20(11): 1571–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rasanen V and Penttala V 2004 The pH measurement of concrete and smoothing mortar using a 3 concrete powder suspension. Cem. Concr. Res. 34: 813–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Behnood A, Tittelboom V and Belie N 2016 Method for measuring pH in concrete: a review. Constr. Build Mater. 105: 176–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sharma D and Goyal S 2018 Accelerated carbonation curing of cement mortars containing cement kiln dust: an effective way of CO2 sequestration and carbon footprint reduction. J. Clean Prod. 192: 844–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Achal V, Mukherjee A and Reddy M S 2011 Effect of calcifying bacteria on permeation properties of concrete structures. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 38: 1229–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Tittelboom K, De Belie N, De Muynck W and Verstraete W 2010 Use of bacteria to repair cracks in concrete. Cem. Concr. Res. 40(1): 157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    De Muynck W, Cox K, De Belie N and Verstraete W 2008 Bacterial carbonate precipitation as an alternative surface treatment for concrete. Constr. Build Mater. 22(5): 875–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sheng G P, Yu H Q and Li X Y 2010 Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of microbial aggregates in biological wastewater treatment systems: a review. Biotechnol. Adv. 28: 882–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Joshi S, Goyal S and Reddy M S 2018 Influence of nutrient components of media on structural properties of concrete during biocementation. Constr. Build. Mater. 158: 601–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    • 1
    • 1
    Email author
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringThapar Institute of Engineering and TechnologyPatialaIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyThapar Institute of Engineering and TechnologyPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations