, Volume 23, Issue 11, pp 1273–1281 | Cite as

Burning, Fluttering, and Extinguishing of a Candle Flame in a Tube

  • Pratyush Agarwal
  • Navneet Kumar
  • Jaywant H Arakeri


In this article, we report some experimental results on the behaviour of the flame of a candle kept at the bottom of a glass tube, which is open at the top and closed at the bottom. Thus, the supply of oxygen for the continuous burning of the flame is possible only from the top open end of the tube. We find that the candle burns steadily below a critical tube height. Above this height, the flame oscillates in size, and a further increase in tube height leads to the flame extinguishing quickly.


Candle flame convection plume air stream 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Reading

  1. [1]
    M Faraday, Faraday’s Chemical History of a Candle, Chicago Review press, Chicago, IL, p.124, 1988.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Biman Nath, A Note on the Chemical History of a Candle–Michael Faraday, Resonance: Journal of Science Education, Vol.7, No.3, pp.90–98, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Anthony Hamins, Matthew Bundy and Scott E Dillon, Characterization of Candle Flames, Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, Vol.15, No.4, pp.265–285, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Murali R Cholemari and Jaywant H Arakeri, Experiments and a Model of Turbulent Exchange Flow in a Vertical Pipe, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.48, No.21, pp.4467–4473, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Jaywant H Arakeri, F E Avila, J M Dada and R O Tovar, Convection in a Long Vertical Tube Due to Unstable Stratification–A New Type of Turbulent Flow?, Current Science, Vol. 79, No.6, pp.859–866, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratyush Agarwal
    • 1
  • Navneet Kumar
    • 2
  • Jaywant H Arakeri
    • 3
  1. 1.IIT-RoorkeeBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIIScBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations