, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 787–808 | Cite as

Breakthroughs in Information and Communication Technologies Part I

  • V. RajaramanEmail author
Series Article


Since the appearance of the first commercial digital computer, there have been many breakthroughs in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) that have led to profound changes in the way we live. We heavily depend on computers today – from hailing cabs and sending mail to searching for information, performing advanced research, and a myriad of applications. This is due to numerous breakthroughs in ICT. In this series of articles, I first propose six criteria to classify an advancement in ICT as a breakthrough. I list fourteen breakthroughs in ICT in chronological order, describe briefly how each of them evolved, and explain why I consider each of them as a breakthrough. In this first part of a three-part series, I discuss five breakthroughs: FORTRAN, Integrated Circuits, Relational Database Management Systems, Local Area Networks, and Personal Computers.


Criteria for breakthroughs in ICT list of breakthroughs in ICT FORTRAN Integrated Circuits Relational Database Management Systems Local Area Networks Personal Computers 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Reading

  1. [1]
    V Rajaraman, John Backus–Inventor of FORTRAN, Resonance, Vol.12, No.8, pp.3–4, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    V Rajaraman, What is New in Computers?–FORTRAN 95, Resonance, Vol.2, No.5. pp.60–68, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Jack S Kilby, Invention of the Integrated Circuit, Resonance, Vol.17, No.11, pp.1100–1115, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    N Bhatt, Jack St.Clair Kilby, Chip and Dare Saga, Resonance, Vol.17, No.11, pp.1035–1047, 2012.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    E F Codd, A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks, Communications of the ACM, Vol.13, No.6, pp. 377–387, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    V Rajaraman, Analysis and Design of Information Systems, 3rd Edition, PHI Learning, Delhi, pp.158–183, 2016.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Jeff Caruso, Living Legends–Ethernet Inventor Bob Metcalfe, NetworkWorld, May 9, 2011.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Charles E Spurgeon, Ethernet: The Definitive Guide,
  9. [9]
    V Rajaraman, Introduction to Information Technology, 3rd Edition, PHI Learning, Delhi, pp.140–149, 2018.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Daniel Knight, Personal Computer History: 1975–1984, 26 April 2014, www.lowendmac.comGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Roy A Allan, A History of the Personal Computer – The People and the Technology, Allan Publishing, London, Ontario, Canada, 2001. (e-book). Scholar
  12. [12]
    The Fifty Greatest Breakthroughs Since the Wheel, The Atlantic Monthly, November, 2013.

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Supercomputer Education & Research CentreIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations