, 92:21 | Cite as

Theoretical aspects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion for three-dimensional flow of the cross fluid with activation energy

  • F SultanEmail author
  • W A Khan
  • M Ali
  • M Shahzad
  • M Irfan
  • M Khan


The current review proclaims the forced convective flow and heat–mass transfer characteristics of cross nanofluid past a bidirectional stretched surface. The most significant aim of the current review is to incorporate the features of Buongiorno relation, activation energy, nonlinear thermal radiation and heat sink–source for a three-dimensional flow of the cross fluid. Appropriate transformations are employed to transform the modelled partial differential equations (PDEs) of momentum, temperature and concentration into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The governing boundary value problem is numerically integrated with the help of bvp4c scheme. The obtained numerical data are plotted for the temperature and concentration profiles of nanofluid for various converging values of physical parameters. The dependence of increasing thermophysical parameters on temperature and concentration profiles of the cross nanofluid is graphically demonstrated. Furthermore, detailed study reveals that the concentration of the cross nanofluid decreases for increasing values of Brownian motion parameter. It is also perceived from the sketches that the concentration of the cross nanofluid decreases for higher values of chemical reaction parameter. The validity of the achieved numerical outcomes is ensured by making a comparison with the existing work as special cases.


3D flow cross fluid model nanoparticles nonlinear thermal radiation heat sink–source 


47.10.A- 47.15.G- 47.27.Ak 47.70.Fw 


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • F Sultan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • W A Khan
    • 1
  • M Ali
    • 1
  • M Shahzad
    • 1
  • M Irfan
    • 3
  • M Khan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsHazara UniversityMansehraPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Mathematical AnalysisGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Department of MathematicsQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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