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Phenology, Seed Germination, and Genetics Explains the Reproductive Strategies of Diospyros lasiocalyx (Mart.) B. Wall

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Abstract

Diospyros lasiocalyx (Mart.) B. Wall. is a dioecious tree species found in the threatened and fragmented Brazilian Cerrado. Its fleshy fruits, which are consumed extensively by wildlife, make the species ideal for use in restoration. This study includes a ten-year phenological observation, germination tests, and analysis of molecular markers to understand the reproductive strategy of D. lasiocalyx based on samples from three populations in two Cerrado ecosystems in São Paulo State, Brazil. The within population reproductive phenological pattern presented low synchrony, indicating a lack of sexual reproduction. The vegetative phenological pattern was well pronounced, with the peak of senescence occurring at the end of the dry season, just before leaf flushing. A small number of unique genets were found, indicating asexual reproduction and low genotypic diversity in the studied populations. The absence of inbreeding and the presence of ramets (stems) suggest that reproduction mainly occurs by apomixis and vegetative propagation, with some mating among unrelated stems and a low germination rate. Our study indicates that D. lasiocalyx can colonize harsh environments such as the Cerrado using alternative asexual reproductive strategies, while simultaneously attracting many seed dispersers.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Francisco Carlos Antoniolli and Edivaldo Furlan for assistance in sample collection. Bruna Ibanes Aguiar was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes: Finance Code 001); Nara O. Vogado received scholarships from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). Alexandre M. Sebbenn, Paulo Y. Kageyma and L.P.C. Morellato were supported by research productivity fellowships granted by CNPq. We would also like to thank Fazenda São José da Conquista and the Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB), the Ecological Station of Itirapina and State Forest of Assis for allowing us to conduct fieldwork. The phenology observations were supported by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) grants: #2007/59779-6 and #2009/54208-6; FAPESP-Microsoft Research #2013/50155-0 and #2010/52113-5 and FAPESP-VALE-FAPEMIG #2010/51307-0 and is a contribution from the Laboratory of Phenology at UNESP. Finally, we thank Dr. Evelyn R. Nimmo for editing the English of the manuscript.

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  1. Paulo Yoshio Kageyama is deceased. This paper is dedicated to his memory.

    • Paulo Yoshio Kageyama

Correspondence to Bruna Ibanes Aguiar.

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Aguiar, B.I., Sebbenn, A.M., Tarazi, R. et al. Phenology, Seed Germination, and Genetics Explains the Reproductive Strategies of Diospyros lasiocalyx (Mart.) B. Wall. Tropical Plant Biol. 13, 23–35 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12042-019-09243-1

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Keywords

  • Genotypic diversity
  • Microsatellite markers
  • Population genetics
  • Tropical tree species
  • Vegetative and reproductive phenology