Tropical Plant Biology

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 85–97 | Cite as

Reveal the Variation Patterns of Chemical Composition in the Fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni) during Postharvest Storage through Metabolomic Characterization

  • Tian Wu
  • Meng Li
  • Zengquan LanEmail author


Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit is one of the traditional medicine materials widely consumed in the South Pacific area. The biological activities and medicinal values of noni fruit have been extensively documented. However, the chemical composition of noni fruit, which determines its pharmacological effects, remains unclear. Moreover, previous studies indicated that the medicinal values of noni fruit varies dynamically after harvest, which resulted in the quality instability of both fresh and processing noni products. To clarify the composition of metabolites in noni fruit and their variation patterns, non-targeted metabolome analysis was performed at different stages during postharvest storage. It was observed that (R)-3, 7-Dihydroxy-2, 4-dimethoxyisoflavan, 3-Hydroxy-5Z-octenyl acetate, Ancistrotectorine, Archange- licin, D-Tagatose, (−)-Epigallocatechin, Ethylsuberenol, Eugenitin, Garcimangosone C, Musanolone C, O-Isopentenylhalfordinol and Serotinose were highly accumulated in fresh fruit, which associated with the roles of noni fruit in antioxidant activity. On the contrary, Palmitic acid, Norecasantalol, Marmelolactone A, Isorhamnetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside), Isooctyl acetate, geranylacetone, Ethylparaben, Ethyl (4Z)-4,7- octadienoate, DL-Malic acid, Coumari, Cedrelanol, Carotol, BR-Xanthone A, 5-Dodecyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone, (Z)-alpha-Irone, and (2E,4E)-2,4-Dodecadienal were increasing significantly after harvest, which not only could be explained the natural antibacterial properties of noni fruit but also supported the healthy immune system and inflammation response. Our study provides new insights into the metabolites composition and their variation patterns after harvest in noni fruit.


Morinda citrifolia (noni) Postharvest Metabolome LC-MS 



This work was supported by a grant from the Applied Basic Research Programs of Yunnan Province of China (No. 2016FB049).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Supplementary material

12042_2019_9222_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (1.9 mb)
Tables S1 (XLSX 1903 kb)
12042_2019_9222_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (95 kb)
Tables S2 (XLSX 95 kb)
12042_2019_9222_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (28 kb)
Tables S3 (XLSX 28 kb)


  1. Ahmed AS, Charles PD, Cholan R, Russia M, Surya R, Jailance L (2015) Antibacterial efficacy and effect of Morinda citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid for dental impressions: a randomized controlled trial. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 7:S597–S599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida-Souza F, Taniwaki NN, Amaral AC, de Souza CS, Calabrese Kda S, Abreu-Silva AL (2016) Ultrastructural changes and death of Leishmania infantum promastigotes induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (noni) juice treatment. Evid-Based Compl Alt Med 2016:506–540Google Scholar
  3. Benoit SC, Kemp CJ, Elias CF, Abplanalp W, Herman JP, Migrenne S, Lefevre AL, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C, Magnan C, Yu F, Niswender K, Irani BG, Holland WL, Clegg DJ (2009) Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-theta subcellular localization in rodents. J Clin Invest 119:2577–2589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boonanantanasarn K, Janebodin K, Suppakpatana P, Arayapisit T, Rodsutthi JA, Chunhabundit P, Boonanuntanasarn S, Sripairojthikoon W (2014) Morinda citrifolia leaves enhance osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. Dent Mater J 33:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Candida T, França JP, Chaves AL, Lopes FA, Gaiba S, Sacramento CK, Ferreira LM, França LP (2014) Evaluation of antitumoral and antimicrobial activity of Morinda lcitrifolia L. grown in Southeast Brazil. Acta Cir Bras 29:10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caramel S, Marchionni M, Stagnaro S (2015) Morinda citrifolia plays a central role in the primary prevention of mitochondrial-dependent degenerative disorders. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16:1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cárdenas-Coronel WG, Carrillo-López A, Vélez-de-la-Rocha R, Labavitch JM, Báez-Sañudo MA, Heredia JB, Zazueta-Morales JJ, Vega-García MO, Sañudo JA (2016) Biochemistry and Cell Wall changes associated with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit ripening. J Agric Food Chem 64:302–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chiu CJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Wolever TM, Brand-Miller JC, Barclay AW, Taylor A (2011) Informing food choices and health outcomes by use of the dietary glycemic index. Nutr Rev 69:231–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ee GC, Daud S, Taufiq-Yap YH, Ismail NH, Rahmani M (2006) Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (Guttiferae). Nat Prod Res 20:1067–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ensor M, Williams J, Smith R, Banfield A, Lodder RA (2014) Effects of three low-doses of D-tagatose on glycemic control over six months in subjects with mild type 2 diabetes mellitus under control with diet and exercise. J Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2:1057Google Scholar
  11. Franchi LP, Guimarães NN, De Andrade LR, De Andrade HH, Lehmann M, Dihl RR, Cunha KS (2013) Antimutagenic and antirecombinagenic activities of noni fruit juice in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. An Acad Bras Cienc 85:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Giovannoni JJ (2007) Fruit ripening mutants yield insights into ripening control. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gooda Sahib Jambocus N, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally MF, Abdul Hamid A (2016) An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf extract in high fat diet induced obese rats using a (1)H NMR metabolomics approach. J Diabetes Res 2016:2391592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hu MX, Zhang HC, Wang Y, Liu SM, Liu L (2012) Two new glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia L. Molecules 17:12651–12656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang YL, Chen CC, Chen YJ, Huang RL, Shieh BJ (2001) Three xanthones and a benzophenone from Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 64:903–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang HL, Ko CH, Yan YY, Wang CK (2014) Antiadhesion and anti-inflammation effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extracts on AGS cells during helicobacter pylori infection. J Agric Food Chem 62:2374–2383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang HL, Liu CT, Chou MC, Ko CH, Wang CK (2015) Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extracts improve Colon microflora and exert anti-inflammatory activities in Caco-2 cells. J Med Food 18:663–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jasicka-Misiak I, Lipok J, Nowakowska EM, Wieczorek PP, Młynarz P, Kafarski P (2004) Antifungal activity of the carrot seed oil and its major sesquiterpene compounds. Z Naturforsch C 11:791–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ji X, Avula B, Khan IA (2007) Quantitative and qualitative determination of six xanthones in Garcinia mangostana L. by LC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal 43:1270–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kannan S, Manickam S, RajaMohammed MA (2014) Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit. J Ayurveda Integr Med 5:73–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khan Y, Pandy V (2016) Methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) unripe fruit attenuates ethanol-induced conditioned place preferences in mice. Front Pharmacol 7:352Google Scholar
  22. Lim SL, Goh YM, Noordin MM, Rahman HS, Othman HH, Abu Bakar NA, Mohamed S (2016) Morinda citrifolia edible leaf extract enhanced immune response against lung cancer. Food Funct 7:741–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu RH, Wen XC, Shao F, Zhang PZ, Huang HL, Zhang S (2016) Flavonoids from heartwood of Dalbergia cochinchinensis. Chin Herb Med 8:89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Luis JG, Quiñones W, Echeverri F, Grillo TA, Kishi MP, Garcia-Garcia F, Torres F, Cardona G (1996) Musanolones: four 9-phenylphenalenones from rhizomes of Musa acuminata. Phytochem 41:753–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mondego-Oliveira R, Almeida-Souza F, de Sa JC, Oliveira Torres MA, de Andrade FHE, Almeida Melo F, da Silva CK, Abreu-Silva AL (2015) Noni fruit extract induces effective control of lesions in mice infected with with Leishmania amazonensis. J Anim Vet Adv 14:151–154Google Scholar
  26. Murata K, Abe Y, Futamura-Masudaa M, Uwaya A, Isami F, Matsuda H (2014) Activation of cell-mediated immunity by Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its constituents. Nat Prod Commun 9:445–450Google Scholar
  27. Narasingam M, Pandy V, Mohamed Z (2016) Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents. Exp Anim 65:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nayak BS, Marshall JR, Isitor G, Adogwa A (2011) Hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of fermented fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) in diabetic rats. Evid-Based Compl Alt Med 2011:875293Google Scholar
  29. Nerurkar PV, Nishioka A, Eck PO, Johns LM, Volper E, Nerurkar VR (2012) Regulation of glucose metabolism via hepatic forkhead transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) by Morinda citrifolia (noni) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Br J Nutr 108:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Osorio S, Alba R, Nikoloski Z, Kochevenko A, Fernie AR, Giovannoni JJ (2012) Integrative comparative analyses of transcript and metabolite profiles from pepper and tomato ripening and development stages uncovers species-specific patterns of network regulatory behavior. Plant Physiol 159:1713–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Abdul Majid AM, Mahmoud Nassar ZD (2012) Antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of the essential oils of Myristica fragrans and Morinda citrifolia. Asian Pac J Trop Med 5:294–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pratap UP, Anand K, Yasmine F, Hima L, Priyanka HP, Thyagarajan S (2016) Phytochemicals in Morinda citrifolia fruit selectively modulate age-associated immunity and antioxidant enzyme activities through ERK pathway in splenic lymphocytes of male F344 rats. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 36:139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ratnoglik SL, Aoki C, Sudarmono P, Komoto M, Deng L, Shoji I, Fuchino H, Kawahara N, Hotta H (2014) Antiviral activity of extracts from Morinda citrifolia leaves and chlorophyll catabolites, pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, against hepatitis C virus. Microbiol Immuno l58:188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Samoylenko V, Zhao J, Dunbar DC, Khan IA, Rushing JW, Muhammad I (2006) New constituents from noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice. J Agric Food Chem 54:6398–6402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Selvam P, Maddali K, Marchand C, Pommier Y (2010) Studies of HIV integrase inhibitory activity of Morinda citrifolia L. noni fruit extracts. Antivir Res 86:45–46Google Scholar
  36. Sharma K, Pachauri SD, Khandelwal K, Ahmad H, Arya A, Biala P, Agrawal S, Pandey RR, Srivastava A, Srivastav A, Saxena JK, Dwivedi AK (2016) Anticancer effects of extracts from the fruit of Morinda Citrifolia (noni) in breast Cancer cell lines. Drug Res (Stuttg) 66:141–147Google Scholar
  37. Sridhar SR, Rajagopal RV, Rajavel R, Masilamani S, Narasimhan S (2003) Antifungal activity of some essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 51:7596–7599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sukamporn P, Rojanapanthu P, Silva G, Zhang X, Gritsanapan W, Baek SJ (2016) Damnacanthal and its nanoformulation exhibit anti-cancer activity via cyclin D1 down-regulation. Life Sci 152:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tin SS, Wiwanitkit V (2014) Morinda citrifolia fruit and anxiolytic effect. J Ayurveda Integr Med 5:140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang MY, West BJ, Jensen CJ, Nowicki D, Su C, Palu AK, Anderson G (2002) Morinda citrifolia (noni): a literature review and recent advances in noni research. Acta Pharmacol Sin 23:1127–1141Google Scholar
  41. Wang MY, Nowicki D, Anderson G, Jensen J, West B (2008) Liver protective effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni). Plant Foods Hum Nutr 63:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Whistler WA (1985) Traditional and herbal medicine in the Cook Islands. J Ethnopharmacol 13:239–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wold S, Esbensen K, Geladi P (1987) Principal component analysis. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 2:37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wu YG, Girmay S, da Silva VM, Perry B, Hu X, Tan GT (2015) The role of endophytic Fungi in the anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (noni). Evid-Based Compl Alt Med 2015:393960Google Scholar
  45. Yang CS, Wang X, Lu G, Picinich SC (2009) Cancer prevention by tea: animal studies, molecular mechanisms and human relevance. Nat Rev Cancer 9:429–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Youn UJ, Park EJ, Kondratyuk TP, Sang-Ngern M, Wall MM, Wei Y, Pezzuto JM, Chang LC (2016) Anti-inflammatory and Quinone reductase inducing compounds from fermented noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice exudates. J Nat Prod 79:1508–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zin ZM, Abdul-Hamid A, Osman A (2002) Antioxidative activity of extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) root, fruit and leaf. Food Chem 78:227–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southwest Landscape Architecture Engineering Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Key Laboratory for Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China, Ministry of EducationSouthwest Forestry UniversityKunmingChina
  2. 2.College of Life Science and TechnologyCentral South University of Forestry and TechnologyChangshaChina
  3. 3.Southwest Institute of Green DevelopmentSouthwest Forestry UniversityKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations