Journal of Genetics

, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp 225–239 | Cite as

Patterns of nucleotide sequence variation in ICAM1 and TNF genes in twelve ethnic groups of India: roles of demographic history and natural selection

  • Sanghamitra Sengupta
  • Shabana Farheen
  • Neelanjana Mukherjee
  • Partha P. MajumderEmail author
Research Article


We have studied DNA sequence variation in and around the genes ICAM1 and TNF, which play functional and correlated roles in inflammatory processes and immune cell responses, in 12 diverse ethnic groups of India, with a view to investigating the relative roles of demographic history and natural selection in shaping the observed patterns of variation. The total numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected at the ICAM1 and TNF loci were 29 and 12, respectively. Haplotype and allele frequencies differed significantly across populations. The site frequency spectra at these loci were significantly different from those expected under neutrality, and showed an excess of intermediate-frequency variants consistent with balancing selection. However, as expected under balancing selection, there was no significant reduction of F ST values compared to neutral autosomal loci. Mismatch distributions were consistent with population expansion for both loci. On the other hand, the phylogenetic network among haplotypes for the TNF locus was similar to expectations under population expansion, while that for the ICAM1 was as expected under balancing selection. Nucleotide diversity at the ICAM1 locus was an order of magnitude lower in the promoter region, compared to the introns or exons, but no such difference was noted for the TNF gene. Thus, we conclude that the pattern of nucleotide variation in these genes has been modulated by both demographic history and selection. This is not surprising in view of the known allelic associations of several polymorphisms in these genes with various diseases, both infectious and noninfectious.


human genetics diversity immunity inflammation selection population expansion 


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanghamitra Sengupta
    • 1
  • Shabana Farheen
    • 1
  • Neelanjana Mukherjee
    • 1
  • Partha P. Majumder
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Human Genetics UnitIndian Statistical InstituteKolkataIndia

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