Advertisement

Evaluation of the impact of high-resolution winds on the coastal waves

  • P SirishaEmail author
  • P G Remya
  • Anuradha Modi
  • Rabi Ranjan Tripathy
  • T M Balakrishnan Nair
  • B Venkateswara Rao
Article
  • 140 Downloads

Abstract

This study discusses the impact of high-resolution winds on the coastal waves and analyses the effectiveness of the high-resolution winds in recreating the fine-scale features along the coastal regions during the pre-monsoon season (March–May). The influence of the diurnal variation of winds on waves is studied for the Tamil Nadu coastal region using wind fields from weather research and forecast (WRF) (3 km) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) (27.5 km). The improvement in the coastal forecast is then quantified with wave rider buoy observations. The high-resolution wind fields simulated fine-scale features like land–sea breeze events and showed good agreement with observation results. The error in the wave height and period is reduced by 8% and 46%, respectively, with the use of high-resolution forcing winds WRF over ECMWF, although the overestimation of wave energy on high frequencies due to overestimated WRF winds remains as a challenge in forecasting. The analysis also shows the importance of accurate wave forecast during a short-duration sudden wind (~12 m/s) occurrence in southern Tamil Nadu near Rameswaram during the pre-monsoon period. Low pressure forms over Tamil Nadu due to the land surface heating, resulting in a sudden increase of winds. High winds and steep waves which cause damage to the property of the coastal community near Rameswaram also were well simulated in the high-resolution forecast system with WRF winds.

Keywords

Wave forecast wind sea breeze wave spectra maximum wave height wave steepness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the director, INCOIS, for encouraging us to carry out this study. The in situ data for this analysis were provided by INCOIS, MoES, INDIA. The authors wish to thank STAR (Centre for Satellite Application and Research) under NESDIS for providing spatial varying ASCAT wind fields. Thanks are also due to Mr Nagaraju Chilukotti, Mr Arun N, C Jaya Kumar and Ramesh for providing their valuable support. As a whole, the authors are especially thankful to the fisherfolk of Rameswaram for providing feedback on the kondalkattu events. This manuscript is ESSO-INCOIS contribution with number 344.

References

  1. Abdalla S and Cavaleri L 2002 Effect of wind variability and variable air density on wave modeling; J. Geophys. Res. 107 1–17.Google Scholar
  2. Aboobacker V M, Vethamony P, Sudheesh K and Rupali S P 2009 Spectral characteristics of the nearshore waves off Paradip, India during monsoon and extreme events; J. Nat. Hazards 49 311–323.Google Scholar
  3. Aboobacker V M, Rashmi R, Vethamony P and Menon H B 2011 On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India; J. Cont. Shelf Res. 31 1701–1712.Google Scholar
  4. Aboobacker V M, Vethamony P, Samiksha S V, Rashmi R and Jyoti K 2013 Wave transformation and attenuation along the west coast of India: Measurements and numerical simulations; J. Coast. Eng. 55(1) 1–21,  https://doi.org/10.1142/s0578563413500010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aboobacker V M, Seemanth M, Samiksha S V, Sudheesh K, Kerkar J and Vethamony P 2014 Sea breeze-induced wind sea growth in the central west coast of India; J. Ocean Eng. 84 20–28.Google Scholar
  6. Aparna M, Shetye S R, Shankar D, Shenoi S S C, Mehra P and Desai R G P 2005 Estimating the seaward extent of sea breeze from QuikSCAT scatterometry; J. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 1–4.Google Scholar
  7. Andersson 2013 User guide to ECMWF forecast products; Ver. 1.1, New terminology, ENS initial perturbations.Google Scholar
  8. Anoop T R, Sanil Kumar V, Shanas P R and Glejin J 2015 Surface wave climatology and its variability in the North Indian Ocean based on ERA-Interim reanalysis; J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32 1372–1385.Google Scholar
  9. Balakrishnan Nair T M, Sirisha P, Sandhya K G, Srinivas K, Sanil Kumar V, Sabique L, Arun N, Krishna Prasad B, Rakhi K and Jeyakumar C 2013 Performance of the ocean state forecast system at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services; Curr. Sci. 105 175–181.Google Scholar
  10. Barstow S F and Kollstad T 1991 Field trails of directional wave rider; Proceedings of the First International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, III, pp. 55–63.Google Scholar
  11. Bentamy A and Fillon D C 2012 Gridded surface wind fields from Metop/ASCAT measurements; Int. J. Remote Sens. 33 1729–1754.Google Scholar
  12. Bertotti L, Cavaleri L, Loffredo L and Torrisi L 2013 Nettuno: Analysis of a wind and wave forecast system for the Mediterranean Sea; J. Mon. Weather Rev. 141 3130–3141.Google Scholar
  13. Bidlot J R, Holmes D J, Wittmann P A, Lalbeharry R and Chen H S 2002 Inter-comparison of the performance of operational ocean wave forecasting systems with buoy data; Weather Forecast. 17 287–310.Google Scholar
  14. Bryant M A, Hesser T J and Jensen R E 2016 Evaluation Statistics Computed for the Wave Information Studies (WIS); US Army Corps of Engineers, pp. 1–10. Google Scholar
  15. Cavaleri L 1994 Applications to wave hindcasting and forecasting; Chapter IV; In: Dynamics and Modeling of Ocean Waves Cambridge University Press, UK, 532p.Google Scholar
  16. Chawla A, Tolman H L, Gerald V, Spindler D, Spindler T, Alves J H G M, Cao D, Hanson J L and Devaliere E M 2013 A multi grid wave forecasting model: A new paradigm in operational wave forecasting; J. Weather Forecast. 28 1057–1078,  https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-12-00007.1. Google Scholar
  17. Das P K 1995 The monsoons. National government publication. India. Directional Wav rider MkIII. Data well-oceanographic instruments; https://www.uniquegroup.com/item/1050/WaveMonitoring/Datawell-Directional-Waverider-Mk3-Buoy.html.
  18. Dinesh Kumar E, Sannasiraj S A, Sundar V and Polnikov V G 2013 Wind-wave characteristics and climate variability in the Indian Ocean region using altimeter data; J. Mar. Geod. 36 303–318.Google Scholar
  19. Glejin J, Sanil Kumar V, Balakrishnan Nair T M and Singh J 2013 Influence of winds on temporally varying short and long period gravity waves in the near shore regions of the eastern Arabian Sea; J. Ocean Sci. 9 343–353.Google Scholar
  20. Golshani A, Nakhaee A, Taebi S, Chegini V and Alaee M J 2005 Wave hindcast study of the Caspian Sea; J. Mar. Eng. 1 19–25.Google Scholar
  21. Goswami B N and Rajagopal E N 2003 Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to QuickSCAT and moored buoy winds; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 112 61–77.Google Scholar
  22. Goward Brown A J, Neill S and Lewis M 2013 The influence of wind gustiness on estimating the wave power resource; Int. J. Mar. Energy 34 1–10.Google Scholar
  23. Hemer M A, Fan Y, Mori N, Semedo A and Wang X L 2013 Projected changes in wave climate from a multi-model ensemble; J. Nat. Clim. Change, 471–476.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1791. Google Scholar
  24. Indira Rani S and Das Gupta M 2013 Oceansat-2 and RAMA buoy winds: A comparison; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122 1571–1582.Google Scholar
  25. Indira Rani S, Ramachandran R, Bala Subrahamanyam D, Alappattu D P and Kunhikrishnan P K 2010 Characterization of sea/land breeze circulation along the west coast of Indian sub-continent during pre-monsoon season; J. Atmos. Res. 95 367–378.Google Scholar
  26. Jose F, Kobashi F D and Stone G W 2007 Spectral wave transformation over an elongated sand shoal off South-Central Louisiana, U.S.A; J. Coast. Res. 50 757–761.Google Scholar
  27. Kurian N P, Rajith K, Shahul Hameed T S, Sheela Nair L, Ramana Murthy M V, Arjun S and Shamji V R 2009 Wind waves and sediment transport regime off the south-central Kerala coast India; Nat. Hazards 49 325–345.Google Scholar
  28. Michalakes J, Dudhia J, Gill D, Henderson T, Klemp J, Skamarock W and Wang W 2004 The Weather Research and Forecast Model: Software Architecture and Performance;  https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812701831_0012.
  29. Nayak S, Bhaskaran P K, Venkatesan R and Dasgupta S 2013 Modulation of local wind waves at Kalpakkam from remote forcing effects of Southern Ocean swells; J. Ocean Eng. 64 23–35.Google Scholar
  30. Neetu S, Shetye S and Chandramohan P 2006 Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 115 229–234.Google Scholar
  31. Niclasen B A, Simonsen K and Magnusson A K 2010 Wave forecasts and small-vessel safety: A review of operational warning parameters; J. Mar. Struct. 23 1–21.Google Scholar
  32. Peixoto J P and Oort A H 1992 Physics of Climate; American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, NY.Google Scholar
  33. Powers J G, Klemp J B, Skamarock W C, Davis C A, Dudhia J, Gill D O, Coen J, Gochis D J, Ahmadov R, Peckham S E, Grell G A, Michalakes J, Tahan S, Benjamin S G, Alexander C R, Dimego G J, Wei Wan G, Scwartz C, Romine G S, Liu Z, Snyder C, Chen F, Barlage M J, Yu W and Duda M G 2017 The weather forecasting model overview, system efforts and future directions; Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98 1717–1737.Google Scholar
  34. Remya P G and Kumar R 2013 Impact of diurnal variation of winds on coastal waves off South East Coast of India; Int. J. Ocean Clim. Syst. 4 171–179.Google Scholar
  35. Remya P G, Kumar R, Basu S and Sarkar A 2012 Wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean using MIKE 21 SW model; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 121 385–392.Google Scholar
  36. Remya P G, Vishnu S, Praveen Kumar S and Balakrishnan Nair T M 2016 Tele connection between the North Indian Ocean high swell events and meteorological conditions over the Southern Indian; J. Geophys. Res. 121 7476–7494.Google Scholar
  37. Sabique L, Annapurnaiah K, Balakrishnan Nair T M and Srinivas K 2012 Contribution of Southern Indian Ocean swells on the wave heights in the Northern Indian Ocean – A modeling study; J. Ocean Eng. 43 113–120.Google Scholar
  38. Sanil Kumar V and Anjali Nair M 2015 Inter-annual variations in wave spectral characteristics at a location off the central west coast of India; J. Ann. Geophys. 33 159–167.Google Scholar
  39. Schiller A, Davidson F, Digiacomo P M and Kirsten W-B 2016 Better informed marine operations and management. Multidisciplinary efforts in ocean forecasting research for socioeconomic benefit; Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 97(9) 1553–1559.  https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00102.1 Google Scholar
  40. Simpson J H, Hyder P, Rippeth T P and Lucas I M 2002 Forced oscillations near the critical latitude for diurnal-inertial resonance; J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32 177–187. Google Scholar
  41. Simpson Mathew, Warrior Hari, Raman Sethu Aswathanarayana P A, Mohanty U C, Suresh R 2007 Sea-breeze-initiated rainfall over the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon. J Natural Hazards. 42, 401–413.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-006-9081-2 Google Scholar
  42. Sindhu B, Suresh I, Unnikrishnan A S, Bhatkar N V, Neetu S and Michael G S 2007 Improved bathymetric datasets for the shallow water regions in the Indian Ocean; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 116 261–274.Google Scholar
  43. Sirisha P, Remya P G, Balakrishnan Nair T M and Venkateswara Rao B 2015 Numerical simulation and observation of very severe cyclone generated wave fields in the North Indian Ocean; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 24 1639–1651.Google Scholar
  44. Sirisha P, Sandhya K G, Balakrishnan Nair T M and Venkateswara Rao B 2017 Evaluation of wave forecast in the north Indian Ocean during extreme conditions and winter monsoon; J. Oper. Oceanogr. 10 79–92.Google Scholar
  45. Sivareddy S, Ravichandran M, Sivasankaran Girishkumar M and Siva Rama Prasad K V 2015 Assessing the impact of various wind forcing on INCOIS-GODAS simulated ocean currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean; J. Ocean Dyn. 65 1235–1247.Google Scholar
  46. Skamarock W C, Klemp J B, Dudhia J, Gill D O, Barker D M, Duda M G, Huang X-Y, Wang W and Powers J G 2008 A description of the Advanced Research WRF version. NCAR Tech; National Center for Atmospheric Research. http://opensky.ucar.edu/islandora/object/technotes:500.
  47. Sorensen O R, Kofoed-Hansen H, Rugbjerg M and Sorensen L S 2004 A third-generation spectral wave model using an unstructured finite volume technique; Proc. Int. Conf. Coast. Eng. 29 894–906.Google Scholar
  48. Steven L B, Hesser T J and Jensen R E 2016 Evaluation Statistics Computed for the Wave Information Studies (WIS); In Proceedings of ERDC/CHL. CHETN-91.Google Scholar
  49. Tolman H L, Banner M L and Kahitu J M 2013 The NOPP operational wave model improvement project; J. Ocean Model. 70 2–10.Google Scholar
  50. Vethamony P, Sudeesh K, Rupali S, Babu M T, Jayakumar S, Saran A K, Basu S K, Kumar R and Sarkar A 2006 Wave modelling for the north Indian Ocean using MSMR analysed winds; Int. J. Remote Sens. 27 3767–3780.Google Scholar
  51. Vethamony P, Aboobacker V M, Sudheesh K, Babu M T and Ashok Kumar K 2009 Demarcation of inland vessels limit off Mormugao port region, India: A pilot study for the safety of inland vessels using wave modeling; Nat. Hazards 49 411–420.Google Scholar
  52. Vethamony P, Aboobacker V M, Menon H B, Ashok Kumar K and Cavaleri L 2011 Superimposition of wind season pre-existing swells off Goa coast; J. Mar. Syst. 87 47–54.Google Scholar
  53. Vishnu S and Francis P A 2014 Evaluation of high-resolution WRF model simulations of surface wind over the West Coast of India; J. Atmospheric Ocean. Sci. Lett. 7(5) 458–463.Google Scholar
  54. Woodcock F and Greenslade D J M 2007 Consensus of numerical model forecasts of significant wave heights; Weather Forecast. 22 792–803.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P Sirisha
    • 1
    Email author
  • P G Remya
    • 1
  • Anuradha Modi
    • 1
  • Rabi Ranjan Tripathy
    • 1
  • T M Balakrishnan Nair
    • 1
  • B Venkateswara Rao
    • 2
  1. 1.ESSO-Indian National Centre for Ocean Information ServicesHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Science and TechnologyJawaharlal Nehru Technological UniversityHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations