Advertisement

Evolution of fluid from the ultrahigh temperature lower crust to shallower levels: Constraints from silicate–oxide–sulphide–sulphate assemblages of mafic granulites of the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

  • Arnob Kumar Mondal
  • Sankar BoseEmail author
Article
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

Mafic granulites from key localities of the Eastern Ghats Province preserve Fe–Ti oxides, Cu–Fe sulphides and traces of sulphate minerals along with silicate phases. Two different varieties of mafic granulite exhibit slightly contrasting mineral assemblages. While the massive type of mafic granulite contains minerals assemblage orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + magnetite + ilmenite + pyrite + pyrrhotite, the migmatitic variety contains garnet as an additional phase. Both oxide and sulphide minerals show contrasting textural characters. Textural analysis and construed mineral reactions imply that the variation of oxide–silicate, oxide–sulphide and sulphate relations is linked to variation of \(f\hbox {O}_{2}\) during the pre-peak, peak and post-peak stages of metamorphism. The calculated \(f\hbox {O}_{2}\) values range up to +4 log units relative to the QFM (quartz-fayalite-magnetite) buffer among the samples, except for one sample which shows lower values (−10 log units relative to the FMQ (fayalite-magnetite-quartz) buffer). The consistently high \(f\hbox {O}_{2}\) condition at the lower crust could result from several factors, but the role of the externally derived fluid appears to be plausible. Hot brine solution with \(\hbox {CaCl}_{{2}}\) species can explain the oxidation as well as local metasomatism of the mafic lower crust even though its presence is not verified from direct characterisation like fluid inclusion analysis.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the financial support from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India (Grant No. 24(0333)/14/EMR-II). Constructive review comments from Prof. Somnath Dasgupta helped us improve the quality of the paper. We thank Proloy Ganguly for his help during EPMA work. S B acknowledges infrastructural support from UGC-CAS and DST-FIST facilities extended to the Department of Geology, Presidency University. The efficient editorial handling by Prof Pulak Sengupta is greatly appreciated.

References

  1. Abati J, Arenas R, Catalan J R M and Garcia F D 2003 Anticlockwise P–T path of granulites from the Monte Castelo gabbro (Ordenes Complex, NW Spain); J. Petrol. 44 305–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson J L and Smith D R 1995 The effects of temperature and \(\text{ fO }_{{2}}\) on the Al-in-hornblende barometer; Am. Mineral. 80 549–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen D J, Lindsley D H and Davidson P M 1993 QUILF: A pascal program to assess equilibria among Fe-Mg-Mn-Ti oxides, pyroxenes, olivine, and quartz; Comput. Geosci. 19 1333–1350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arima M, Kerrich R and Thomas A 1986 Sapphirine-bearing paragneiss from the northern Grenville Province in Labrador, Canada. Protolith compositions and metamorphic P–T conditions; Geology 14 884–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballhaus C 1993 Redox states of lithospheric and asthenospheric upper mantle; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 114 331–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes J D, Manning C E, Scambelluri M and Selverstone J 2018 The behavior of halogens during subduction-zone processes; In: The role of halogens in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geochemical processes: Surface, crust, and mantle (eds) Harlov D E and Aranovich L, Springer, Berlin, Geochemistry Chapter, Vol. 8, pp. 545–590,  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61667-4_8.Google Scholar
  7. Beard J S and Lofgren G E 1991 Dehydration melting and water-saturated melting of basaltic and andesitic greenstones and amphibolites at 1, 3, and 6. 9 kbar; J. Petrol. 32 365–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhui U K, Sengupta P and Sengupta P 2007 Phase relations in mafic dykes and their host rocks from Kondapalle, Andhra Pradesh, India: Implications for the time–depth trajectory of the Palaeoproterozoic (late Archaean?) granulites from southern Eastern Ghats belt; Precamb. Res. 156 153–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bishop F C 1980 The distribution of \(\text{ Fe }^{2+}\) and Mg between coexisting ilmenite and pyroxene with applications to geothermometry; Am. J. Sci. 280 46–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bohlen S R and Essene E J 1977 Feldspar and oxide thermometry of granulites in the Adirondack Highlands; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 62 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bose S and Das K 2007 Sapphirine + quartz assemblage in contrasting textural modes from the Eastern Ghats belt, India: Implications for stability relations in UHT metamorphism and retrograde processes; Gondwana Res. 11 492–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bose S and Dasgupta S 2018 Eastern Ghats belt, Grenvillian-age tectonics and the evolution of the Greater Indian Landmass: A critical perspective; J. Indian Inst. Sci.,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41745-018-0068-2. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bose S, Fukuoka M, Sengupta P and Dasgupta S 2000 Evolution of high-Mg-Al granulites from sunkarametta, Eastern Ghats, India: Evidence for a lower crustal heating-cooling trajectory; J. Metamorph. Geol. 18 223–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bose S, Pal S and Fukuoka M 2003 Pressure–temperature-fluid evolutionary history of orthopyroxene-bearing quartzofeldspathic and mafic granulites from northern parts of the Eastern Ghats belt, India: Implications for Indo-Antarctic correlation; J. Asian Earth Sci. 22 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bose S, Das K and Fukuoka M 2005 Fluorine content of biotite in granulite-grade metapelitic assemblages and its implications for the Eastern Ghats granulites; Eur. J. Mineral. 17 665–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bose S, Das K, Dasgupta S, Miura H and Fukuoka M 2006 Exsolution textures in orthopyroxene in aluminous granulites as indicators of UHT metamorphism: New evidence from the Eastern Ghats belt, India; Lithos 92pg 506–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bose S, Das K, Ohnishi I, Torimoto J, Karmakar S, Shinoda K and Dasgupta S 2009 Characterization of oxide assemblages of a suite of granulites from Eastern Ghats belt, India: Implication to the evolution of C-O-H-F fluids during retrogression; Lithos 113 483–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bose S, Dunkley D J, Dasgupta S, Das K and Arima M 2011 India–Antarctica–Australia–Laurentia connection in the Paleoproterozoic–Mesoproterozoic revisited: Evidence from new zircon U–Pb and monazite chemical age data from the Eastern Ghats belt, India; GSA Bull. 123 2031–2049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bose S, Das K, Torimoto J, Arima M and Dunkley DJ 2016 Evolution of the Chilka Lake granulite complex, northern Eastern Ghats belt, India: First evidence of \(\sim \)780 Ma decompression of the deep crust and its implication on the India–Antarctica correlation; Lithos 263pg 161–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown M 1994 The generation, segregation, ascent and emplacement of granite magma: The migmatite-to-crustally-derived granite connection in thickened orogens; Earth-Sci. Rev. 36 83–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown M 2001 Crustal melting and granite magmatism: Key issues; Phys. Chem. Earth A; Solid Earth Geod. 26 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buddington A and Lindsley D 1964 Iron-titanium oxide minerals and synthetic equivalents; J. Petrol. 5 310–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burton B P 1991 The interplay of chemical and magnetic ordering; Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 25 303–322.Google Scholar
  24. Cameron E and Hattori K 1994 Highly oxidized deep metamorphic zones: Occurrence and origin; Mineral. Mag. A 58 142–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cameron E M, Cogulu E H and Stirling J 1993 Mobilization of gold in the deep crust: Evidence from mafic intrusions in the Bamble belt, Norway; Lithos 30 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carmichael I S 1991 The redox states of basic and silicic magmas: A reflection of their source regions? Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 106 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carroll M R and Rutherford M J 1987 The stability of igneous anhydrite: Experimental results and implications for sulfur behavior in the 1982 El Chichon trachyandesite and other evolved magmas; J. Petrol. 28 781–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crawford M and Hollister L 1986 Metamorphic fluids: The evidence from fluid inclusions. Fluid-rock interactions during metamorphism; Springer, NY, pp. 1–35.Google Scholar
  29. Darken L and Gurry R 1945 The system iron-oxygen. I. The wüstite field and related equilibria; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 67 1398–1412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Das K, Bose S, Karmakar S, Dunkley D J and Dasgupta S 2011 Multiple tectonometamorphic imprints in the lower crust: First evidence of ca. 950 Ma (zircon U–Pb SHRIMP) compressional reworking of UHT aluminous granulites from the Eastern Ghats belt, India; Geol. J. 46 217–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Das K, Tomioka N, Bose S, Ando J and Ohnishi I 2017 The occurrence of fluor-wagnerite in UHT granulites and its implications towards understanding fluid regimes in the evolution of deep crust: A case study from the Eastern Ghats belt, India; Mineral. Petrol. 111 417–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dasgupta S, Sengupta P, Guha D and Fukuoka M 1991 Mafic granulites from the Eastern Ghats, India: Further evidence for extremely high temperature crustal metamorphism; J. Geol. 99 124–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dasgupta S, Sengupta P, Mondal A and Fukuoka M 1993 Mineral chemistry and reaction textures in metabasites from the Eastern Ghats belt, India and their implications; Mineral. Mag. 57 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dasgupta S, Sengupta P, Ehl J, Raith M and Bardhan S 1995 Reaction textures in a suite of spinel granulites from Eastern Ghats belt, India: Evidence for polymetamorphism and a partial petrogenetic grid in the system KFMASH and the roles of ZnO and \(\text{ Fe }_{2}\text{ O }_{3}\); J. Petrol. 36 435–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dasgupta S, Bose S and Das K 2013 Tectonic evolution of the Eastern Ghats belt, India; Precamb. Res. 227pg 247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dasgupta S, Bose S, Bhowmik S K and Sengupta P 2017 The Eastern Ghats belt, India, in the context of supercontinent assembly; In: Crustal evolution of India and Antarctica: The supercontinent connection (eds.) Pant N C and Dasgupta S, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 457 87–104.Google Scholar
  37. Dobmeier C J and Raith M M 2003 Crustal architecture and evolution of the Eastern Ghats Belt and adjacent regions of India, in Yoshida M, Windley B F and Dasgupta S (eds.) Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent Assembly and Breakup; Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 206 145–168.Google Scholar
  38. Duchesne J C 1972 Iron-titanium oxide minerals in the Bjerkrem-Sogndal Massif, south-western Norway; J. Petrol. 13 57–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dziggel A, Diener J F A, Stoltz N B and Kolb J 2012 Role of \(\text{ H }_{{2}}\text{ O }\) in the formation of garnet coronas during near-isobaric cooling of mafic granulites: The Tasiusarsuaq terrane, southern West Greenland; J. Metamorph. Geol. 30 957–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Faryad S W and Hoinkes G 2004 Complex growth textures in a polymetamorphic metabasite from the Kraubath Massif (Eastern Alps); J. Petrol. 45 1441–1451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Feisel Y, White R W and Palin R M 2018 New constraints on granulite-facies metamorphism and melt production in the Lewisian Complex, northwest Scotland; J. Metamorph. Geol.,  https://doi.org/10.1111/jmg.12311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Frost B R 1991 Introduction to oxygen fugacity and its petrologic importance; Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 25 1–9.Google Scholar
  43. Frost B R and Chacko T 1989 The granulite uncertainty principle: Limitations on thermobarometry in granulites; J. Geol. 97 435–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frost B R, Lindsley D H and Andersen D J 1988 Fe-Ti oxide-silicate equilibria; assemblages with fayalitic olivine;Am. Mineral. 73 727–740.Google Scholar
  45. Ganguly J 1979 Garnet and clinopyroxene solid solutions, and geothermometry based on Fe-Mg distribution coefficient; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43 1021–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ganguly P, Bose S, Das K, Torimoto J and Ghosh G 2017 Origin of spinel+quartz assemblage in a Si-undersaturated ultrahigh-temperature aluminous granulite and its implication for the P–T–fluid history of the phulbani domain, Eastern Ghats belt, India; J. Petrol. 58 1941–1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ghiorso M S 1990 Thermodynamic properties of hematite-ilmenite-geikielite solid solutions; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 104 645–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gross A, Droop G T R and Porcer C C 2009 Petrology and thermobarometry of mafic granulites and migmatites from the Chafalote Metamorphic Suite: new insights into the Neoproterozoic P–T evolution of the Uruguayan-Sul-Rio-Grandense shield; Precamb. Res. 170 157–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haggerty S E 1991 Oxide textures: A mini-atlas; Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 25 129–219.Google Scholar
  50. Hall A 1986 Pyrite-pyrrhotite redox reactions in nature; Mineral. Mag. 50 223–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hanor J S 1994 Origin of saline fluids in sedimentary basins; In: Geofluids: Origin, migration and evolution of fluids in sedimentary basins (ed.) Parnell J, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 78 151–174.Google Scholar
  52. Hanor J S 2000 Barite–celestine geochemistry and environments of formation; In: Sulfate minerals: Crystallography, geochemistry and environmental significance (eds.) Hawthorne F C, Krivovichev V and Burns P C, Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 40 193–275.Google Scholar
  53. Harley S 1989 The origins of granulites: A metamorphic perspective; Geol. Mag. 126 215–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harley S 2008 Refining the P–T records of UHT crustal metamorphism; J. Metamorph. Geol. 26 125–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harlov D, Newton R C and Hansen E C 1997 Oxide and sulphide minerals in highly oxidized, Rb-depleted, Archaean granulites of the Shevaroy Hills Massif, south India: Oxidation states and the role of metamorphic fluids; J. Metamorph. Geol. 15 701–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Harlov D E 1992 Comparative oxygen barometry in granulites, Bamble Sector, SE Norway; J. Geol. 100 447–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Harlov D E 2000a Apparent pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite solid solutions in charnockites: The Shevaroy Hills Massif, Tamil Nadu, S India and the Bamble Sector, SE Norway; Mineral. Mag. 64 853–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Harlov D E 2000b Titaniferous magnetite–ilmenite thermometry and titaniferous magnetite–ilmenite–orthopyroxene–quartz oxygen barometry in granulite facies gneisses, Bamble Sector, SE Norway: Implications for the role of high-grade \(\text{ CO }_{{2}}\)-rich fluids during granulite genesis; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 139 180–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harlov D E 2012 The potential role of fluids during regional granulite-facies dehydration in the lower crust; Geosci. Front. 3 813–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harlov D E and Hansen E 2005 Oxide and sulphide isograds along a Late Archean, deep-crustal profile in Tamil Nadu, south India; J. Metamorph. Geol. 23 241–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harlov D E, Johansson L, Van Den Kerkhof A and Förster H J 2005 The role of advective fluid flow and diffusion during localized, solid-state dehydration: Söndrum Stenhuggeriet, Halmstad, SW Sweden; J. Petrol. 47 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harlov D E, Tropper P, Seifert W, Nijland T and Förster H J 2006 Formation of Al-rich titanite (\(\text{ CaTiSiO }_{{4}}\text{ O }\)-\(\text{ CaAlSiO }_{{4}}\text{ OH }\)) reaction rims on ilmenite in metamorphic rocks as a function of \(\text{ fH }_{{2}}\text{ O }\) and \(\text{ fO }_{{2}}\); Lithos 88 72–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hartel T and Pattison D 1996 Genesis of the Kapuskasing (Ontario) migmatitic mafic granulites by dehydration melting of amphibolite: The importance of quartz to reaction progress; J. Metamorph. Geol. 14 591–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hattori K and Cameron EM 1986 Archaean magmatic sulphate; Nature 319 45–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Huang G, Brown M, Guo J, Piccoli P and Zhang D 2018 Challenges in constraining the P–T conditions of mafic granulites: An example from the northern Trans-North China Orogen; J. Metamorph. Geol.,  https://doi.org/10.1111/jmg.12308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jones K and Escher J 2002 Near-isothermal decompression within a clockwise P-T evolution recorded in migmatitic mafic granulites from clavering Ø, NE Greenland: Implications for the evolution of the Caledonides; J. Metamorph. Geol. 20 365–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kelsey D E, Morrissey L J, Hand M, Clark C, Tamblyn R, Gaehl A A and Marshall S 2017 Significance of post-peak metamorphic reaction microstructures in the ultrahigh temperature Eastern Ghats Province, India; J. Metamorph. Geol. 35 1081–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Keppler H 1996 Constraints from partitioning experiments on the composition of subduction-zone fluids; Nature 380 237–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Khodorevskaya L and Aranovich L Y 2016 Experimental study of amphibole interaction with \(\text{ H }_{{2}}\text{ O }\)–NaCl fluid at \(900^{\circ }\text{ C }\), 500 MPa: Toward granulite facies melting and mass transfer; Petrology 24 215–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Korhonen F J, Brown M, Clarke C and Bhattacharya S 2013a Osumilite–melt interactions in ultrahigh temperature granulites: Phase equilibria modelling and implications for the P–T–t evolution of the Eastern Ghats province, India; J. Metamorph. Geol. 31 881–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Korhonen F J, Clark C, Brown M, Bhattacharya S and Taylor R 2013b How long-lived is ultrahigh temperature (UHT) metamorphism? Constraints from zircon and monazite geochronology in the Eastern Ghats orogenic belt, India; Precamb. Res. 234 322–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kretz R 1982 Transfer and exchange equilibria in a portion of the pyroxene quadrilateral as deduced from natural and experimental data; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46 411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kullerud G 1957 Phase relations in the Fe-SO system; Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yb. 56 198–200.Google Scholar
  74. Lal R, Ackermand D and Upadhyay H 1987 P-T-X relationships deduced from corona textures in sapphirine-spinel-quartz assemblages from Paderu, Southern India; J. Petrol. 28 1139–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lee H Y and Ganguly J 1988 Equilibrium compositions of coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene: Experimental determinations in the system FeO-MgO-\(\text{ Al }_{2}\text{ O }_{3}\)-\(\text{ SiO }_{{2}}\), and applications; J. Petrol. 29 93–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lindsley D H 1973 Delimitation of the hematite-ilmenite miscibility gap; GSA Bull. 84 657–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lindsley D H 1991 Experimental studies of oxide minerals; In: Oxide minerals: Petrologic and magnetic significance (ed.) Lindsley D H, Rev. Mineral. 25 69–106.Google Scholar
  78. López S and Castro A 2001 Determination of the fluid–absent solidus and supersolidus phase relationships of MORB-derived amphibolites in the range 4–14 kbar; Am. Mineral. 86 1396–1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Manning C and Aranovich L 2014 Brines at high pressure and temperature: Thermodynamic, petrologic and geochemical effects; Precamb. Res. 253 6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Manning C E 2004 The chemistry of subduction-zone fluids; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 223 1–16.Google Scholar
  81. McLelland J, Morrison J, Selleck B, Cunningham B, Olson C and Schmidt K 2002 Hydrothermal alteration of late-to post-tectonic Lyon Mountain Granitic Gneiss, Adirondack Mountains, New York: Origin of quartz–sillimanite segregations, quartz–albite lithologies, and associated Kiruna-type low-Ti Fe-oxide deposits; J. Metamorph. Geol. 20 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Moecher D, Essene E J and Anovitz L M 1988 Calculation and application of clinopyroxene-garnet-plagioclase-quartz geobarometers; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 100 92–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mohan A, Sachan H K and Singh P K 2003 High-density carbonic fluid inclusions in charnockites from Eastern Ghats, India: Petrologic implications; J. Asian Earth Sci. 22 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mohr D and Newton R C 1983 Kyanite-staurolite metamorphism in sulfidic schists of the Anakeesta formation, Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina; Am. J. Sci. 283 97–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Möller P, Weise S M, Althaus E, Bach W, Behr H J, Borchardt R, Bräuer K, Drescher J, Erzinger J, Faber E, Hansen B T, Horn E E, Huenges E, Kämpf H, Kessels W and Kirsten T 1997 Paleofluids and recent fluids in the upper continental crust: Results from the German continental deep drilling program (KTB); J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 102 18233–18254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Montanini A and Tribuzio R 2001 Gabbro-derived granulites from the northern Apennines (Italy): Evidence for lower-crustal emplacement of tholeiitic liquids in post-Variscan times; J. Petrol. 42 2259–2277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Muan A 1958 Phase equilibria at high temperatures in oxide systems involving changes in oxidation states; Am. J. Sci. 256 171–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Newton R C and Manning C E 2005 Solubility of anhydrite, \(\text{ CaSO }_{{4}}\), in NaCl–\(\text{ H }_{{2}}\text{ O }\) solutions at high pressures and temperatures: Applications to fluid–rock interaction; J. Petrol. 46 701–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ni H, Zhang L, Xiong X, Mao Z and Wang J 2017 Supercritical fluids at subduction zones: Evidence, formation condition, and physicochemical properties; Earth Sci. Rev. 167 62–71.Google Scholar
  90. O’Brien P 2008 Challenges in high-pressure granulite metamorphism in the era of pseudosections: Reaction textures, compositional zoning and tectonic interpretation with examples from the Bohemian Massif; J. Metamorph. Geol. 26 235–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ohmoto H and Kerrick D 1977 Devolatilization equilibria in graphitic systems; Am. J. Sci. 277 1013–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ohmoto H and Skinner B J 1983 The Kuroko and related volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits; Vol. 5, Econ. Geol. Publ. Co., New HavenGoogle Scholar
  93. Padrón-navarta J, Garrido C J, Sánchez-Navas A, Tommasi A, López Sánchez-Vizcaíno V, Gómez-Pugnaire M T and Hussain S S 2008 Oriented growth of garnet by topotactic reactions and epitaxy in high-pressure, mafic garnet granulite formed by dehydration melting of metastable hornblende-gabbronorite (Jijal Complex, Kohistan Complex, north Pakistan); J. Metamorph. Geol. 26 855–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. PatiñoDouce A E and Beard J S 1995 Dehydration-melting of biotite gneiss and quartz amphibolite from 3 to 15 kbar; J. Petrol. 36 707–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pattison D R M 1991 Infiltration-driven dehydration and anatexis in granulite facies meragabbro, Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada; J. Metamorph. Geol. 9 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pattison D R M 2003 Petrogenetic significance of orthopyroxene-free garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase \(\pm \) quartz-bearing metabasites with respect to the amphibolite and granulite facies; J. Metamorph. Geol. 21 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pattison D R M, Chacko T J, Farquhar J and McFarlane C R M 2003 Temperatures of granulite-facies metamorphism: Constraints from experimental phase equilibria and thermobarometry corrected for retrograde exchange; J. Petrol. 44 867–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pownceby M I, Wall V J and O’Neill HSt 1987 Fe–Mn partitioning between garnet and ilmenite: Experiments and applications; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 97 116–126.Google Scholar
  99. Racek M, Štípská P and Powell R 2008 Garnet–clinopyroxene intermediate granulites in the St. Leonhard massif of the Bohemian massif: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism at high pressure or not? J. Metamorph. Geol. 26 253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ramakrishnan M, Nanda J K and Augustin P 1998 Geological evolution of the proterozoic Eastern Ghats mobile belt; In: Geological evolution of proterozoic Eastern Ghats Mobile belt (eds.) Ramakrishnan M, Paul D K and Mishra R N, Geol. Surv. India Spec. Publ. 44 1–21.Google Scholar
  101. Ranjan S, Upadhyay D, Pruseth K L and Nanda J K 2018 Zircon geochronology of deformed alkaline rocks along the Eastern Ghats belt margin: India–Antarctica connection and the Enderbia continent; Precamb. Res.,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2018.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rapp R P and Watson E B 1995 Dehydration melting of metabasalt at 8–32 kbar: Implications for continental growth and crust-mantle recycling; J. Petrol. 36 891–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rapp R P, Bruce E, Calvin W and Miller F 1991 Partial melting of amphibolite/eclogite and the origin of Archean trondhjemites and tonalities; Precamb. Res. 51 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rickers K, Mezger K and Raith M M 2001 Evolution of the continental crust in the Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Belt, and new constraints for Rodinia reconstruction: Implications from Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb isotopes; Precamb. Res. 112 183–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rittenhouse G 1967 Bromine in oil-field waters and its use in determining possibilities of origin of these waters; AAPG Bull. 51 2430–2440.Google Scholar
  106. Rollinson H R 1980 Iron-titanium oxides as an indicator of the role of the fluid phase during the cooling of granites metamorphosed to granulite grade; Mineral. Mag. 43 623–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rushmer T 1991 Partial melting of two amphibolites: Contrasting experimental results under fluid-absent conditions; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 107 41–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rushmer T 1993 Experimental high-pressure granulites: Some applications to natural mafic xenolith suites and Archean granulite terranes; Geology 21 411–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Saha T and Karmakar S 2015 Petrotectonic framework of granitoids and associated granulites at Nagavalli Shear Zone (NSZ), Eastern Ghats belt: Evidence of a late transpression orogeny; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124 707–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sarkar S, Santosh M, Dasgupta S and Fukuoka M 2003 Very high density \(\text{ CO }_{{2}}\) associated with ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India; Geology 31 51–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sawyer E 1999 Criteria for the recognition of partial melting; Phys. Chem. Earth A; Solid Earth Geod. 24 269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sen C and Dunn T 1994 Dehydration melting of a basaltic composition amphibolite at 1.5 and 2.0 GPa: Implications for the origin of adakites; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 117 394–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sengupta P, Dasgupta S, Bhattacharya P K, Fukuoka M, Chakraborti S and Bhowmick S 1990 Petro-tectonic imprints in the sapphirine granulites from Anantagiri, Eastern Ghats mobile belt, India; J. Petrol. 31 971–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sengupta P, Dasgupta S, Bhui U K, Ehl J and Fukuoka M 1996 Magmatic evolution of mafic granulites from Anakapalle, Eastern Ghats, India: Implications for tectonic setting of a Precambrian high-grade terrain; J. Southeast Asian Earth Sci. 14 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shaw R K, Arima M, Kagami H, Fanning C M, Shiraishi K and Motoyoshi Y 1997 Proterozoic events in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India: Evidence from Rb–Sr, Sm–Nd systematics, and SHRIMP dating; J. Geol. 105 645–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shikazono N, Holland H D and Quirk R F 1983 Anhydrite in Kuroko deposits: Mode of occurrence and depositional mechanisms; Econ. Geol. Mon. 5 329–344.Google Scholar
  117. Shmulovich K I and Graham C M 2004 An experimental study of phase equilibria in the systems \(\text{ H }_{{2}}\text{ O }\)\(\text{ CO }_{{2}}\)\(\text{ CaCl }_{{2}}\) and \(\text{ H }_{{2}}\text{ O }\)\(\text{ CO }_{{2}}\)–NaCl at high pressures and temperatures (500–\(800^{\circ }\text{ C }\), 0.5–0.9 GPa): Geological and geophysical applications; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 146 450–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Skjerlie K P and PatinõDouce A 1995 Anatexis of interlayered amphibolite and pelite at 10 kbar: Effect of diffusion of major components on phase relations and melt fraction; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 122 62–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Springer W and Seck H A 1997 Partial fusion of basic granulites at 5 to 15 kbar: Implications for the origin of TTG magmas; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 127 30–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stober I and Bucher K 2005 The upper continental crust, an aquifer and its fluid: Hydaulic and chemical data from 4 km depth in fractured crystalline basement rocks at the KTB test site; Geofluids 5 8–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stormer J C and Whitney J A 1977 Two-feldspar geothermometry in granulite facies metamorphic rocks; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 65 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stout M, Crawford M L and Ghent E D 1986 Pressure-temperature and evolution of fluid compositions of \(\text{ Al }_{{2}}\text{ SiO }_{{5}}\)-bearing rocks, mica creek, BC, in light of fluid inclusion data and mineral equilibria; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 92 236–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Török K, Bali E, Szabó C and Szakál J A 2003 Sr–barite droplets associated with sulfide blebs in clinopyroxene megacrysts from basaltic tuff (Szentbékkálla, western Hungary); Lithos 66 275–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Toulmin P and Barton P B 1964 A thermodynamic study of pyrite and pyrrhotite; Geochim. Cosmochim. Act 28 641–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Touret J L 1985 Fluid regime in southern Norway: The record of fluid inclusions. The deep proterozoic crust in the north Atlantic provinces; Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 517–549.Google Scholar
  126. Touret J L 2009 Mantle to lower-crust fluid/melt transfer through granulite metamorphism; Russ. Geol. Geophys. 50 1052–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Touret J L and Huizenga J M 2012 Fluid-assisted granulite metamorphism: A continental journey; Gondwana Res. 21 224–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Touret J L and Nijland T 2013 Prograde, peak and retrograde metamorphic fluids and associated metasomatism in upper amphibolite to granulite facies transition zones. Metasomatism and the chemical transformation of rock; Springer, Berline, Heidelberg, pp. 415–469.Google Scholar
  129. Tracy R J and Robinson P 1988 Silicate-sulfide-oxide-fluid reactions in granulite-grade pelitic rocks, central Massachusetts; Am. J. Sci. 288 45–74.Google Scholar
  130. Upadhyay D 2008 Alkaline magmatism along the southeastern margin of the Indian shield: Implications for regional geodynamics and constraints on craton–Eastern Ghats belt suturing; Precamb. Res. 162 59–69.Google Scholar
  131. Valenza K, Moritz R, Mouttaqi A, Fontignie D and Sharp Z 2000 Vein and karst barite deposits in the Western Jebilet of Morocco: Fluid inclusion and isotope (S, O, Sr) evidence for regional fluid mixing related to Central Atlantic Rifting; Econ. Geol. 95 587–606.Google Scholar
  132. Van Cranendonk M J and Pirajno F 2004 Geochemistry of metabasalts and hydrothermal alteration zones associated with c. 3.45 Ga chert and barite deposits: Implications for the geological setting of the Warrawoona Group, Pilbara Craton, Australia; Geochem. Explor. Envir. Anal. 4 253–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vincent E and Phillips R 1954 Iron-Titanium oxide minerals in layered gabbros of the skaergaard intrusion, east Greenland: Part I. Chemistry and ore-microscopy; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 6 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Watson E B and Brenan J M 1987 Fluids in the lithosphere, 1. Experimentally-determined wetting characteristics of \(\text{ CO }_{{2}}\)-\(\text{ H }_{{2}}\text{ O }\) fluids and their implications for fluid transport, host-rock physical properties, and fluid inclusion formation; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 85 497–515.Google Scholar
  135. Wolf M B and Wyllie P J 1994 Dehydration-melting of amphibolite at 10 kbar: The effects of temperature and time; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 115 369–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yardley B W D 2005 Metal concentrations in crustal fluids and their relationship to ore formation; Econ. Geol. 100 613–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Yardley B W 2009 The role of water in the evolution of the continental crust; J. Geol. Soc. London 166 585–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Yardley B and Graham J 2002 The origins of salinity in metamorphic fluids; Geofluids 2 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yund R A and Kullerud G 1966 Thermal stability of assemblages in the Cu-Fe-S system; J. Petrol. 7 454–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zhang H, Ling M, Liu Y, Tu X, Wang F, Li C, Liang H, Yang X, Arndt N and Sun W 2013 High oxygen fugacity and slab melting linked to Cu mineralization: Evidence from dexing porphyry copper deposits, southeastern China; J. Geol. 121 289–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Zheng Y, Ren C, Zheng X and Shao Z 2016 The transport of water in subduction zones; Sci. China Earth Sci. 59 651–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of GeologyPresidency UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations