Advertisement

Petrographic controls on phosphorous distribution in coal seams of the Jharia basin, India

  • Atul Kumar VarmaEmail author
  • Sumit Mishra
  • Balram Tiwari
  • Bodhisatwa Hazra
  • Susheel Kumar
  • Durga Charan Panigrahi
  • Anwita Ojha
Article
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

In recent years, the international coking coal market is experiencing an acute shortage of coal supply which has caused a fluctuation in its price. Degradation of coke, in the blast furnace, is largely controlled by its inherent mineral matter. Phosphorous occurs in all coals in minor or trace amounts and is an important parameter to coal users, particularly in steel industries. The mode of occurrence and distribution of phosphorous minerals in 17 coal samples of the Jharia coal basin were investigated through petrographic examinations, technological characterisation and phosphorous distribution. The results reveal that the dull bands are eight times more enriched in phosphorous than the bright bands. The macerals of the inertinite group and mineral matter positively correlate with the phosphorous content, whereas vitrinite macerals have an apathetic correlation. The impact of the thermal alterations is localised and diminishes away from the contact of the intrusion. In contrast, the faulting does not appear to have any effect on the phosphorous content.

Keywords

Dull band bright band phosphorous maceral dyke 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Deputy Director General, Coal Wing, Geological Survey of India, Kolkata, for providing permission to use his laboratory facility for vitrinite reflectance measurements. The authors are indebted to Mr Santanu Ghosh, Department of Applied Geology, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, India, for his help in correcting and improving the quality of paper. The authors would like to convey their sincere thanks to Prof Partha Pratim Chakraborty, Associate Editor, Journal of Earth System Science, and the learned reviewers for their valuable suggestions to upgrade the quality of this paper.

References

  1. Alastuey A, Jiménez A, Plana F, Querol X and Suárez-Ruiz I 2001 Geochemistry, mineralogy, and technological properties of the main Stephanian carboniferous coal seams from the Puertollano basin, Spain; Int. J. Coal Geol. 45 247–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM 1994 D 2798-96. Standard test method for microscopical determination of the reflectance of vitrinite in a polished specimen of coal; Annual Book of American Society for Testing and Materials Standards: Gaseous fuels: Coal and coke; Sect 5, Vol. 5.05, pp. 279–283.Google Scholar
  3. ASTM 2015 D 4596–09. Standard practice for collection of channel samples of coal in a mine (Reapproved); Annual Book of American Society for Testing and Materials Standards, 3p.Google Scholar
  4. Berger I A 1958 Geochemistry of coal; Econ. Geol. 53 823–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertine K K and Goldberg E D 1971 Fossil fuel combustion and the major sedimentary cycle; Science 173 233–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bloom T A, Fosnacht D R and Haezebrouck D M 1990 The influence of phosphorus on the properties of sheet steel products and methods used to control steel phosphorus levels in steel product manufacturing – Part I; Iron Steelmaker 18 35–41.Google Scholar
  7. Bohor B F and Triplehorn D M 1993 Tonsteins: Altered volcanic ash layers in coal bearing sequences; Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 285 44.Google Scholar
  8. Burchill P, Howarth O W, Richards D G and Sword B J 1990 Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of phosphorus and boron in coals and combustion residues; Fuel 69 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burger K, Bandelow F K and Bieg G 2000 Pyroclastic kaolin coal-tonsteins of the upper Carboniferous of Zonguldak and Amasra, Turkey; Int. J. Coal Geol. 45 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burger K, Zhou Y and Ren Y 2002 Petrography and geochemistry of tonsteins from the 4th Member of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe formation in southern Sichuan Province, China; Int. J. Coal Geol. 49 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chandra D 1992 Jharia coalfield. Mineral resources in India; Vol. 5, Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 149p.Google Scholar
  12. CIL 1993 Coal atlas of India; Coal India Limited, Calcutta, pp. 84–85.Google Scholar
  13. Clark M C and Swaine D J 1962 The contents of several trace elements in the standard rocks G-1 and W-1; Cosmochim. Acta 26 511–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook A C 1962 Fluorapatite petrifactions in a Queensland coal; Austr. J. Sci. 25 94.Google Scholar
  15. Creelman R A and Ward C R 1996 A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal; Int. J. Coal Geol. 30 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crowley S S, Ruppert L F, Belkin H E, Stanton R W and Moore T A 1993 Factors affecting the geochemistry of a thick, sub-bituminous coal bed in the Powder River Basin: Volcanic, detrital, and peat forming processes; Org. Geochem. 20 843–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dai S, Graham I T and Ward C R 2016 A review of anomalous rare earth elements and yttrium in coal; Int. J. Coal Geol. 159 82–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dai S, Ren D, Chou C-L, Finkelman R B, Seredin V V and Zhou Y 2012a Geochemistry of trace elements in Chinese coals: A review of abundances, genetic types, impacts on human health, and industrial utilization; Int. J. Coal Geol. 94 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dai S, Zou J, Jiang Y, Ward C R, Wang X, Li T, Xue W, Liu S, Tian H, Sun X and Zhou D 2012b Mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Pennsylvanian coal in the Adaohai Mine, Daqingshan Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China: Modes of occurrence and origin of diaspore, gorceixite, and ammonianillite; Int. J. Coal Geol. 94 250–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dai S, Li T, Jiang Y, Ward C R, Hower J C, Sun J, Liu J, Song H, Wei J, Li Q, Xie P and Huang Q 2015a Mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Pennsylvanian coal in the Hailiushu Mine, Daqingshan Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China: Implications of sediment source region and acid hydrothermal solutions; Int. J. Coal Geol. 137 92–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dai S, Hower J C, Ward C R, Guo W, Song H, O’Keefe M K, Xie P, Hood M M and Yan X 2015b Elements and phosphorus minerals in the middle Jurassic inertinite rich coals of the Muli Coalfield on the Tibetan Plateau; Int. J. Coal Geol. 144–145 23–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawson G K W, Golding S D, Esterle J S and Massarotto P 2012 Occurrence of minerals within fractures and matrix of selected Bowen and Ruhr Basin coals; Int. J. Coal Geol. 94 150–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Diessel C F K 1992 Coal-bearing depositional systems; Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 721p.Google Scholar
  24. Finkelman R B and Stanton R W 1978 Identification and significance of accessory minerals from a bituminous coal; Fuel 57 763–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Finkelman R B, Bostick N H, Dulong F T, Senftle F E and Thorpe A N 1998 Influence of an igneous intrusion on the inorganic geochemistry of a bituminous coal from Pitkin County, Colorado; Int. J. Coal Geol. 36 223–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fox C S 1930 The Jharia coalfield; Mem. Geol. Surv. India 56 248.Google Scholar
  27. Francis W 1961 Coal: Its formation and composition; Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  28. Gentzis T and Godarzi F 1997 Trace elements geochemistry of brackish water coals in the central Alberta Plains, Canada; Energy Resour. 19 493–505.Google Scholar
  29. Ghosh S K and Mukhopadhyay A 1985 Tectonic history of the Jharia basin – An intracratonic Gondwana Basin of eastern India; Quart. J. Geol. Min. Met. Soc. India 57 33–58.Google Scholar
  30. Gluskoter J J, Ruch R R, Miller W G, Cahill R A, Dreher G B and Kuhn J K 1977 Trace elements in coal: Occurrence and distribution; Illinois State Geological Survey, Circular, 499p.Google Scholar
  31. Goodarzi F, Grieve D A and Labonte M 1990 Tonsteins in East Kootenay coalfields, south eastern British Columbia; Energy Source 12 265–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hackley P C, Warwick P D and González E 2005 Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of mined coals, western Venezuela; Int. J. Coal Geol. 63 68–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harris L A, Barrett H E and Kopp O C 1981 Element concentrations and their distribution in two bituminous coals of different paleoenvironments; Int. J. Coal Geol. 1 175–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hill P A 1988 Tonsteins of Hat Creek, British Columbia: A preliminary study; Int. J. Coal Geol. 10 155–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hower J C, Hoffman G K and Garrison T M 2012 Macrinite and funginite forms in Cretaceous Menefee Formation anthracite, Cerrillos coalfield, New Mexico; Int. J. Coal Geol. 114 54–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hower J C, Ruppert L F and Eble C F 1999 Lanthanide, yttrium, and zirconium anomalies in the fire clay coal bed, eastern Kentucky; Int. J. Coal Geol. 39 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hower J C, Eble C F, Dai S and Belkin H E 2016 Distribution of rare earth elements in eastern Kentucky coals: Indicators of multiple modes of enrichment? Int. J. Coal Geol. 160–161 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huggins F E, Shah N, Zhao J, Lu F and Huffman G P 1993 Nondestructive determination of trace element speciation in coal and coal ash by XAFS spectroscopy; Energy Fuels 7(4) 482–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. ICCP 1971 International handbook of coal petrology (Suppl.) (2nd edn); International Committee for Coal Petrography, Cent. Natl. Rech. Sci., Paris.Google Scholar
  40. ICCP 1998 The new vitrinite classification (ICCP system 1994). International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology; Fuel 77 349–358.Google Scholar
  41. ICCP 2001 The new inertinite classification (ICCP system 1994). International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology; Fuel 80 459–471.Google Scholar
  42. IS 1979 Indian standard Part V-1350: Methods of test for coal and coke special impurities (first revision).Google Scholar
  43. IS 1984 Indian standard 1350-1: Methods of test for coal and coke, Part I: Proximate analysis (PCD 7: solid mineral fuels).Google Scholar
  44. Kalkreuth W, Holz M, Kern M, Machado G, Mexias A, Silva M B, Willett J, Finkelman R and Burger H 2006 Petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin. 1. Santa Terezinha, Leão-Butiá and Candiota coalfields, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Int. J. Coal Geol. 68 79–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kilby W E 1986 Some chemical and mineralogical characteristics of tonsteins and bentonites in Northeast British Columbia Ministry of Energy; Mines and Petroleum Resources, Geological Fieldwork 1985, Paper 1986-1.Google Scholar
  46. Kovach S M and Bennett J 1975 Coal liquefaction. 1. Catalysts present in coal; Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem. 20(1) 143–160.Google Scholar
  47. Mackowsky M-Th 1968 Mineral matter in coal; In: Coal and coal-bearing strata (eds) Murchison D G and Westoll T S, Oliver and Boyd, London, pp. 309–321.Google Scholar
  48. Mahony B, Moulston I and Wilkinson H C 1981 Study of the relationship between the phosphorus content of coal and coke; Fuel 60 355–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mardon S M and Hower J C 2004 Impact of coal properties on coal combustion by-product quality: Examples from a Kentucky power plant; Int. J. Coal Geol. 59 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marique C and Nilles P 1984 4th process technology conference on mixed gas blowing; Iron and Steel Society of AIME, Chicago, IL, 147p.Google Scholar
  51. Mastalerz M, Drobniak A and Schimmelmann A 2009 Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin; Int. J. Coal Geol. 77 310–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mehta D R S and Murthy B R N 1957 A revision of the geology and coal resources of the Jharia coalfield; Mem. Geol. Surv. India 84(2) 142.Google Scholar
  53. Moore F and Esmaeili A 2012 Mineralogy and geochemistry of the coals from the Karmozd and Kiasar coal mines, Mazandaran province, Iran; Int. J. Coal Geol. 96–97 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mukhopadhyay G, Mukhopadhyay S K, Roychowdhury M and Parui P K 2010 Stratigraphic correlation between different Gondwana basins of India; J. Geol. Soc. India 76 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Patrick W H and Khalid R A 1974 Phosphate release and sorption by soils and sediments: Effect of aerobic and anaerobic conditions; Science 186 53–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Powell M A 1987 The inorganic geochemistry of two western U.S. coals: Emery coal field, Utah and Powder river coal field, Wyoming; unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.Google Scholar
  57. Prachiti P K, Manikyamba C, Singh P K, Balaram V, Lakshminarayana G, Raju K, Singh M P, Kalpana M S and Arora M 2011 Geochemical systematics and precious metal content of the sedimentary horizons of lower Gondwanas from the Sattupalli coal field, Godavari Valley, India; Int. J. Coal Geol. 88 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Querol X, Whateley M K G, Fernández-Turiel J L and Tuncali E 1997 Geological controls on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Beypazari lignite, central Anatolia, Turkey; Int. J. Coal Geol. 33 255–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rao P D and Walsh D E 1997 Nature and distribution of phosphorus minerals in Cook Inlet coals, Alaska; Int. J. Coal Geol. 33 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rao P D and Walsh D E 1999 Influence of environments of coal deposition on phosphorous accumulation in a high latitude, northern Alaska, coal seam; Int. J. Coal Geol. 38 261–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Raza A, Hill K C and Korsch R J 1995 Mid-Cretaceous regional uplift and denudation of the Bowen-Surat basins, Queensland and its relation to Tasman sea rifting; In: Proceedings of the Bowen basin symposium (suppl.) (eds) Follington I W, Beeston J W and Hamilton L H, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Mackay, Queensland, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  62. Reifenstein A P, Kahraman H, Coin C D A, Calos N J, Miller G and Uwins P 1999 Behaviour of selected minerals in an improved ash fusion test: Quartz, potassium feldspar, sodium feldspar, kaolinite, illite, calcite, dolomite, siderite, pyrite and apatite; Fuel 78 1449–1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ronov A B and Korzina G A 1960 Phosphorus in sedimentary rocks; Geochemistry 8 805–829.Google Scholar
  64. Ryan R J and Boehner R C 1995 Upper Paleozoic overlap assemblages: geological overview; In: Geology of the Appalachian–Caledonian Orogen in Canada (ed.) Williams H, Geological Survey of Canada, Geology of Canada, No. 6, Vol. F-1, pp. 782–783.Google Scholar
  65. Ryan B and Grieve D A 1996 Source and distribution of phosphorus in British Columbia Coal Seams; In: Geological fieldwork 1995 (eds) Grant B and Newell J M, B C Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Paper 1996-1, pp. 277–294.Google Scholar
  66. Ryan B and Khan M 1997 Maceral affinity of phosphorous in coals from the Elk Valley Coalfield, British Columbia; Geological Fieldwork 1997, B.C. Geological Survey and Fording Coal Limited, Calgary, Paper 1998-l, pp. 28-20.Google Scholar
  67. Schimmelmann A, Mastalerz M, Gao L, Sauer P E and Topalov K 2009 Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73 6264–6281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sengupta N, Guha P K S and Mukhopadhyay A 1979 Pattern of lower Gondwana sedimentation, Jharia Basin, a model; In:IVth International Gondwana Symposium, Vol. II, Hindustan Publ. Co., Delhi, pp. 617–625.Google Scholar
  69. Seredin V V 1996 Rare earth element-bearing coals from the Russian Far east deposits; Int. J. Coal Geol. 30 101–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Seredin V V and Dai S 2012 Coal deposits as a potential alternative source for lanthanides and yttrium; Int. J. Coal Geol. 94 67–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Singh M P and Singh P K 1995 Mineral matter in the Rajmahal coals: Study through incident light microscopy and scanning electron micrography; J. Geol. Soc. India 46 557–564.Google Scholar
  72. Singh P K, Singh G P and Naik A S 2010 Petrological considerations for beneficiation of Indian coal; J. Sci. Res. 54 51–60.Google Scholar
  73. Singh A L, Singh P K, Singh M P and Kumar A 2015a Environmentally sensitive major and trace elements in Indonesian coal and their geochemical significance; Energy Source A 37 1836–1845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Singh P K, Rajak P K, Singh M P, Naik A S, Singh V K, Raju S V and Ojha S 2015b Environmental geochemistry of selected elements in lignite from Barsingsar and Gurha Mines of Rajasthan, Western India; J. Geol. Soc. India 86 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Singh P K, Rajak P K, Singh M P, Singh V K and Naik A S 2016a Geochemistry of Kasnau–Matasukh lignites, Nagaur basin, Rajasthan (India); Int. J. Coal Sci. Technol. 3(2) 104–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Singh P K, Singh V K, Rajak P K, Singh M P and Naik A S 2016b Distribution and geochemistry of selected trace elements in the lignites of Cambay basin, Gujarat, Western India; J. Geol. Soc. India 88 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Spears D A 2012 The origin of tonsteins, an overview, and links with seat earths, fireclays and fragmental clay rocks; Int. J. Coal Geol. 94 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stubbles J R 1986 Phosphorous and sulphur in steel making, Iron Steel Making, PhD thesis.Google Scholar
  79. Swain F M 1970 Non-marine organic geochemistry; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  80. Swaine D J 1980 Trace element aspects of coal mining, preparation and storage; In: Environmental controls for coal mining – Proceedings of first national seminar (ed.) Hannan J C, Earth Resources Foundation, University of Sydney, pp. 264–274.Google Scholar
  81. Swaine D J 1990 Trace elements in coal; Butterworth, London, 278p.Google Scholar
  82. Varma A K and Mishra S 2005 Geological and petrographic characterization for phosphorous distribution in some coal seams of Jharia coalfield, Jharkhand, India; In: 57th annual meeting of International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology, ICCP Abstracts, Patras, Greece, 22p.Google Scholar
  83. Verma R P, Jaipuriar A M and Paul P R 1989 Compendium on updated and revised geology of Jharia coalfield (excluding TISCO & IISCO properties); Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Ltd., Ranchi, India.Google Scholar
  84. Wang X 2009 Geochemistry of Late Triassic coals in the Changhe Mine, Sichuan Basin, south western China: Evidence for authigenic lanthanide enrichment; Int. J. Coal Geol. 80 167–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ward C R 1974 Isolation of mineral matter from Australian bituminous coals using hydrogen peroxide; Fuel 53 220–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ward C R 1978 Mineral matter in Australian bituminous coals; Proc. Australas. Inst. Min. Metall. 267 7–25.Google Scholar
  87. Ward C R 2002 Analysis and significance of mineral matter in coal seams; Int. J. Coal Geol. 50 135–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ward C R 2016 Analysis, origin and significance of mineral matter in coal: An updated review; Int. J. Coal Geol. 165 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ward C R, Corcoran J F, Saxby J D and Read H W 1996 Occurrence of phosphorus minerals in Australian coal seams; Int. J. Coal Geol. 31 185–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Willett J C, Finkelman R B, Mroczkowski S, Palmer C A and Kolker A 2000 Semiquantitative determination of the modes of occurrence of elements in coal: Results from an international round robin project. In: Modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal. Reports from an international collaborative programme (ed.) Davidson R M, IEA Coal Research, London, UK (CD-ROM).Google Scholar
  91. Zhou Y, Ren Y and Bohor B F 1982 Origin and distribution of tonsteins in late Permian coal seams of south western China; Int. J. Coal Geol. 2 49–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atul Kumar Varma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sumit Mishra
    • 1
  • Balram Tiwari
    • 1
  • Bodhisatwa Hazra
    • 1
  • Susheel Kumar
    • 1
  • Durga Charan Panigrahi
    • 2
  • Anwita Ojha
    • 1
  1. 1.Coal Geology and Organic Petrology Laboratory, Department of Applied GeologyIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mining EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations