Correlation of multiple deformation events in an area: Example from schistose rocks of Lesser Himalayas, NW Pakistan

  • Mustafa YarEmail author


Integrated micro-, meso- and macro-structural investigations were carried out in the multiply deformed rocks of the Mula Gori area, northeastern Khyber Agency, Lesser Himalayas. These investigations revealed an intricate history of deformation events that have not been formerly recognised. These structural examinations show four successive deformations. These events were identified in the field as well as in oriented vertical thin sections. The first deformation event \(\hbox {D}_{1}\) is preserved in the form of inclusion trails in garnet porphyroblasts of foliation intersection axis 1 (FIA 1) and the fold axis of the macroscopic fold indicates NW–SE orogeny-oblique shortening. The \(\hbox {D}_{2 }\) event produced N–S trending foliations, fold axes and mineral lineations indicating E–W shortening. The \(\hbox {D}_{3}\) is preserved as FIA 2 in garnet porphyroblast and E–W trending foliations, mineral lineations and fold axes in the field representing N–S shortening. The \(\hbox {D}_{4}\) created NNW–SSE fabrics, which post-dates the main mantle thrust and the main boundary thrust, and likely resulted from the ENE–WSW bulk shortening related to development of the Hazara–Kashmir syntaxis.


Porphyroblast microstructures mesoscopic structures Mula Gori area Lesser Himalayas 



The National Centre of Excellence in Geology (NCEG), University of Peshawar financed the studies. Oriented vertical thin sections were prepared at the rock cutting laboratory of NCEG. Constructive journal reviews were provided by Dr Sayandeep Banerjee and Dr Soumyajit Mukherjee. Their valuable suggestions/comments improved the quality of the paper. Many thanks to Prof Saibal Gupta for the editorial support.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyFATA UniversityAkhurwal, Darra Adam KhelPakistan
  2. 2.National Centre of Excellence in GeologyUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan

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