Advertisement

Application of satellite altimetry in understanding river–wetland flow interactions of Kosi river

  • V Chembolu
  • A K DubeyEmail author
  • P K Gupta
  • S Dutta
  • R P Singh
Article
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

Flood-plain wetlands are the seasonal water bodies formed along a river. These wetlands become active during the monsoon season, which frequently grow in size with seasonal floods and eventually dry up during the non-monsoon season. The flow interaction between flood-plain wetlands and the river sometimes vary over a very short period in response to rapid rise in the river water level due to high precipitation in its upstream catchment. Understanding the complex flow interactions between the river and its associated flood-plain wetlands with field-based measurements of wetland hydrologic characteristics is always a challenging task. To overcome these challenges, an attempt has been made to utilise Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry-derived water levels into a hydrodynamic model (HEC-RAS) to study river and wetland flow interactions in the lower reach of the Kosi river in India. The satellite altimetry-derived water levels and Landsat satellite images on the Kosi wetlands are used to develop volume-elevation relation. HEC-RAS is setup over the study area and calibrated for different values of manning’s roughness coefficient (n) for the river bank and the main channel of the river for the period of 1993–1996. Unsteady flow simulations are carried out for different monsoon seasons to simulate daily river flow interaction (inflow/outflow) between river and wetlands. Statistical analysis is performed between the altimetry-derived and the model-simulated water levels. It is found that simulated water levels are in good agreement (\(R^{2}=0.87\), root mean square error of 0.84 m and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.85) with altimetry-derived water levels. The analysis of simulations indicates that interactions between the wetland and the river are bidirectional with most of the flow coming out from the river during the month of August and leaving out from the wetlands during the month of September. The wetlands respond in three different ways, i.e., (i) gaining stage, (ii) wetland and river in equilibrium and (iii) loosing stage, which is reflected on water levels of the river and wetland. This study demonstrates complex interaction processes happening between the Kosi river and its surrounding wetlands.

Keywords

Flood-plain wetland river modelling satellite altimetry HEC-RAS model unsteady flow analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Central Water Commission (CWC) board of India for providing the bathymetry (river cross-section) and gauge data of the Kosi river. The authors also express their sincere gratitude towards the Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad (ISRO), for funding the research through SARAL/Altika utilisation project.

References

  1. Alsdorf D E 2003 Water storage of the central Amazon floodplain measured with GIS and remote sensing imagery; Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr.  93(1) 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barkau R L 1987 A mathematical model of unsteady flow through a dendritic network; PhD Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO.Google Scholar
  3. Birkett C M 1995 The contribution of TOPEX/POSEIDON to the global monitoring of climatically sensitive lakes; J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans (1978–2012)  100(C12) 25179–25179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Birkett C M 1998 Contribution of the TOPEX NASA radar altimeter to the global monitoring of large rivers and wetlands; Water Resour. Res.  34(5) 1223–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chakraborty T, Kar R, Ghosh P and Basu S 2010 Kosi megafan: Historical records, geomorphology and the recent avulsion of the Kosi River; Quat. Int.  227(2) 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chander S, Ganguly D, Dubey A K, Gupta P K, Singh R P and Chauhan P 2014 Inland water bodies monitoring using satellite altimetry over Indian region; Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci.  40(8) 1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chow V T, Maidment D R and Mays L W 1988 Applied hydrology; McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Crétaux J-F, Jelinski W, Stéphane C, Kouraev A, Vuglinski V, Bergé-Nguyen M and Gennero M-C et al. 2011 SOLS: A lake database to monitor in the near real time water level and storage variations from remote sensing data; Adv. Space Res.  47(9) 1497–1507.Google Scholar
  9. Duan Z and Bastiaanssen W G M 2013 Estimating water volume variations in lakes and reservoirs from four operational satellite altimetry databases and satellite imagery data; Remote Sens. Environ.  134 403–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dubey A K, Gupta P, Dutta S and Kumar B 2014 Evaluation of satellite-altimetry-derived river stage variation for the braided Brahmaputra River; Int. J. Remote Sens.  35(23) 7815–7827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dubey A K, Gupta P, Dutta S and Singh R P 2015a Water level retrieval using SARAL/AltiKa observations in the Braided Brahmaputra river, Eastern India; Mar. Geod.  38 (Suppl 1) 549–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dubey A K, Gupta P K, Dutta S and Singh R P 2015b An improved methodology to estimate river stage and discharge using Jason-2 satellite data; J. Hydrol.  529 1776–1787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frappart F, Seyler F, Martinez J M, Leon J G and Cazenave A 2005 Floodplain water storage in the Negro River basin estimated from microwave remote sensing of inundation area and water levels; Remote Sens. Environ.  99(4) 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frappart F, Minh K D, L’Hermitte J, Cazenave A, Ramillien G, Le Toan T and Mognard-Campbell N 2006 Water volume change in the lower Mekong from satellite altimetry and imagery data; Geophys. J. Int.  167(2) 570–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frappart F, Papa F, Güntner A, Susanna W, Ramillien G, Prigent C, Rossow W B and Bonnet M P 2010 Interannual variations of the terrestrial water storage in the Lower Ob’Basin from a multisatellite approach; Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.  14(12) 2443–2453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frazier P, Page K, Louis J, Briggs S and Robertson A I 2003 Relating wetland inundation to river flow using Landsat TM data; Int. J. Remote Sens.  24(19) 3755–3770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Getirana A C, Bonnet M P, Calmant S, Roux E, Rotunno Filho O C and Mansur W J 2009 Hydrological monitoring of poorly gauged basins based on rainfall–runoff modeling and spatial altimetry; J. Hydrol.  379(3–4) 205–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gupta P, Dubey A K, Goswami N, Singh R P and Chauhan P 2015 Use of SARAL/AltiKa observations for modeling river flow; Mar. Geod.  38 (Suppl 1) 614–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Junk W, Bayley P B and Sparks R E 1989 The flood pulse concept in river–floodplain systems; In: Proceedings of the international large river symposium (LARS) (ed.) Dodge D P, Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 106, pp. 110–127.Google Scholar
  20. Karim F, Kinsey-Henderson A, Wallace J, Arthington A H and Pearson R G 2012 Modelling wetland connectivity during overbank flooding in a tropical floodplain in north Queensland, Australia; Hydrol. Process.  26(18) 2710–2723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Karim F, Kinsey-Henderson A, Wallace J, Godfrey P, Arthington A H and Pearson R G 2014 Modelling hydrological connectivity of tropical floodplain wetlands via a combined natural and artificial stream network; Hydrol. Process.  28(23) 5696–5710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koblinsky C J, Clarke R T, Brenner A C and Frey H 1993 Measurement of river level variations with satellite altimetry; Water Resour. Res.  29(6) 1839–1848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leon J G, Calmant S, Seyler F, Bonnet M P, Cauhopé M, Frappart F and Fraizy P 2006 Rating curves and estimation of average water depth at the upper Negro River based on satellite altimeter data and modeled discharges; J. Hydrol.  328(3–4) 481–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Papa F, Prigent C, Durand F and Rossow W B 2006 Wetland dynamics using a suite of satellite observations: A case study of application and evaluation for the Indian Subcontinent; Geophys. Res. Lett.  33(8).Google Scholar
  25. Papa F, Durand F, Rossow W B, Rahman A and Bala S K 2010 Satellite altimeter-derived monthly discharge of the Ganga–Brahmaputra River and its seasonal to interannual variations from 1993 to 2008; J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans  115(C12).Google Scholar
  26. Roux E, Cauhope M, Bonnet M P, Calmant S, Vauchel P and Seyler F 2008 Daily water stage estimated from satellite altimetric data for large river basin monitoring/estimation de hauteurs d’eau journalières a partir de données d’altimétrie radar pour la surveillance des grands basins fluviaux; Hydrol. Sci. J.  53(1) 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shiklomanov A I, Lammers R B and Vörösmarty, C J 2002 Widespread decline in hydrological monitoring threatens Pan-Arctic research; EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union  83 13–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Siddique-E-Akbor A H M, Hossain F, Lee H and Shum C K 2011 Inter-comparison study of water level estimates derived from hydrodynamic–hydrologic model and satellite altimetry for a complex deltaic environment; Remote Sens. Environ.  115(6) 1522–1531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sinha R 2008 Kosi: Rising waters, dynamic channels and human disasters; Economic and Political Weekly, pp. 42–46.Google Scholar
  30. Sinha R, Sripriyanka K, Jain V and Mukul M 2014 Avulsion threshold and planform dynamics of the Kosi River in north Bihar (India) and Nepal: A GIS framework; Geomorphology  216 157–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stokstad E 1999 Scarcity of rain, stream gages threatens forecasts; Science  285 1199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Verron J, Bonnefond P, Aouf L, Birol F, Bhowmick S A, Calmant S, Conchy T, Crétaux J F, Dibarboure G, Dubey A K and Faugère Y 2018 The benefits of the Ka-band as evidenced from the SARAL/AltiKa altimetric mission: Scientific applications; Remote Sens.  10(2) 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wen L, Macdonald R, Morrison T, Hameed T, Saintilan N and Ling J 2013 From hydrodynamic to hydrological modelling: Investigating long-term hydrological regimes of key wetlands in the Macquarie Marshes, a semi-arid lowland floodplain in Australia; J. Hydrol.  500 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang J, Xu K, Yang Y, Qi L, Hayashi S and Watanabe M 2006 Measuring water storage fluctuations in Lake Dongting, China, by Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry; Environ. Monit. Assess.  115(1–3) 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V Chembolu
    • 1
  • A K Dubey
    • 2
    Email author
  • P K Gupta
    • 2
  • S Dutta
    • 1
  • R P Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology GuwahatiKamrup District, GuwahatiIndia
  2. 2.Space Applications Centre (ISRO)AhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations