Advertisement

Amphibolites in the rare metal- and tin-bearing Bastar–Malkangiri pegmatite belt in Chhattisgarh and Odisha, India

  • P V Ramesh Babu
  • R Dhana RajuEmail author
Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Amphibolites and Abukuma-type low-grade and low-pressure meta-sedimentary rocks (MSR) host mineralised rare metal (Nb–Ta, Be and Li)- and Sn-bearing granite pegmatites and their parental, fertile S-type granites in the Bastar–Malkangiri Pegmatite Belt (BMPB) in the SE part of the Bastar craton in parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha, India. Amphibolites, based on their field relationship (as sills in MSR), mineral assemblage and textural features, are broadly classified into three types: (i) tremolite-, (ii) hornblende–actinolite-, and (iii) hornblende-bearing amphibolites. Petrochemically, amphibolite types (i–iii) show a regular decrease in their Mg content and related trace elements such as Cr (81–1731 ppm), Ni (135–379 ppm) and Co (23–68 ppm) and, hence, are designated, respectively, as high-, intermediate- and low-Mg amphibolites. All the three types show slight enrichment in Si, Fe and P, reflected in their normative quartz, hypersthene and lesser diopside, magnetite, ilmenite and apatite, but no olivine. They are relatively enriched in incompatible elements such as Rb (16–526 ppm), Ba (15–538 ppm), Zr (56–147 ppm) and Nb (3–44 ppm), with relatively a higher concentration of these elements in those near to the contacts with pegmatites, thereby demonstrating some influence of the pegmatites on the chemistry of the host amphibolites. In spite of these, the three types of amphibolites show regular differentiation trends, reflected by their systematic decrease of Ni, Cr and Co with a decrease of Mg, and also show Fe-enrichment in their alkalies \((\hbox {Na}_2\hbox {O} + \hbox {K}_2\hbox {O})-(\hbox {FeO} + \hbox {Fe}_2\hbox {O}_3)-\hbox {MgO}\) (AFM) plot. The field, petrography and major–minor trace elements petrochemistry, including rare earth elements with slight negative to no Eu-anomaly, and their chemical patterns cumulatively point out that these amphibolites are ortho-type and sub-alkaline in nature, with quartz tholeiitic magmatic affinity, and the formation due to more of fractional crystallisation and less of 5–25% partial melting of an enriched primordial mantle magma (enriched mid-oceanic ridge basalt – E-MORB), emplaced at a deduced shallow depth of 10–25 km, with the main controlling phases being olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene and apatite.

Keywords

Amphibolites Bastar–Malkangiri Pegmatite Belt Odisha–Chhattisgarh India 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper forms a part of the PhD thesis of PVRB, under the supervision of RDR. The authors express their sincere thanks to their former colleagues (i) in the Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD) for Exploration and Research, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India for their support in the field during the course of fieldwork and (ii) in different laboratories of AMD Headquarters, Hyderabad, for analytical data. Two anonymous reviewers of the journal are sincerely thanked for their comments and suggestions, which helped in improving the quality of the paper.

References

  1. Acharya B C, Das S K, Sahoo R K, Patnaik B C and Das N K 1989 Mineralogy of tin ores from Koraput District, Orissa; J. Geol. Soc. India 34(4) 405–412.Google Scholar
  2. Arndt N T and Nesbitt E G 1982 What is a Komatiite?; In: Komatiites (eds) Arndt N T and Nesbitt E G, George Allen and Unwin, London, 526p.Google Scholar
  3. Arth J G and Hanson G N 1975 Geochemistry and origin of the early Precambrian crust of northeastern Minnesota; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39 325–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandyopadhyay B K, Bhoskar K G, Ramachandra N M, Roy A, Khader V K, Mohan M, Sreeramachandra Rao K, Ray Barman T, Bishvi P K and Gupta S N 1990 Recent geochronological studies in parts of the Precambrian of central India; Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ. 28 199–210.Google Scholar
  5. Bhola K L and Bhatnagar G S 1969 Occurrence of beryl in Madhya Pradesh and adjoining Simdega subdivision of Bihar; Quart. J. Geol. Mining Met. Soc. India XLI(1) 37–44.Google Scholar
  6. Chawla A S 1988 A report on the geological evaluation of aeroradiometric data in and around Indravati Basin, M.P., India; Atomic Minerals Division, Hyderabad (Unpublished report).Google Scholar
  7. Condie K C 1989 Plate tectonics and crustal evolution (3rd edn), Pergaman Press, 476p.Google Scholar
  8. Crookshank H 1963 Geology of the Southern Bastar and Jeypore from the Bailadila range to the eastern Ghats; Geol. Surv. India Memoir 87 149p.Google Scholar
  9. Davies A, Blackburn W H, Brown W R and Ehmann W D 1978 Trace element geochemistry and origin of Late Precambrian – Early Cambrian Catoctin greenstones of the Applachian mountains; Univ. of California at Davies, California (unpublished).Google Scholar
  10. Deshpande M L 1976 Cassiterite-lepidolite-bearing pegmatites in Bastar dist., M.P.; Indian Miner. 30(1) 67–74.Google Scholar
  11. Floyd P A and Winchester J A 1978 Identification and discrimination of altered and metamorphosed volcanic rocks using immobile elements; Chem. Geol. 21 291–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gurna S S, Satyanarayana N, Dhana Raju R, Selvam A P and Virnave S N 1988 Instrumental neutron activation analysis in the study of rare earth elements and related trace elemental distribution in the Mahadek sandstones from Pdengshakap, Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya and its bearing on exploration; In: Proceedings of the national symposium on ‘Analytical Applications in Earth Sciences’, Ind. Soc. Analytical Scientists (ISAS), pp. 2–8 (issued in February 1992).Google Scholar
  13. Irvine T N and Baragar W R A 1971 A guide to the chemical classification of some common volcanic rocks; Can. J. Earth Sci. 8 523–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lamba V J S and Agarkar P S 1988 The tin potential of Precambrian rare-metal bearing pegmatites of Bastar District, M.P., India; Mineral. Deposita 23 218–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lamba V J S and Khanna V K 1981 Characteristic features of tin-bearing rare-metal pegmatites of Konta tahsil, Bastar District, M.P.; Bull. Ind. Geol. Assoc. 14(2) 151–154.Google Scholar
  16. Leake B E 1964 The chemical distinction between ortho- and para-amphibolites; J. Petrol. 5 238–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MacDonald G A and Katsura T 1964 Chemical composition of Hawiian lavas; J. Petrol. 5 82–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Murthy K S, Jaiswar H P and Jesany R S 1979 Geology in relation to tin mineralisation in Bastar district, M.P. Workshop on ‘Mineralisation associated with acid magmatism’, Nagpur; Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ. 13 61–70.Google Scholar
  19. Nakamura N 1974 REE contents of chondrite; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38 753–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pearce J A 1982 Trace element characteristics of lavas from destructive plate boundaries; In: Andesites (ed.) Thorpe R S, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 525–548.Google Scholar
  21. Pearce J A and Norry M J 1979 Petrogenetic implications of Ti, Zr, Y and Nb variations in volcanic rocks; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 69 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramachar T M, Shivananda S R, Dwivedy K K and Jayaram K M V 1979 The rare metal and REE occurrences in south Bastar district, Madhya Pradesh; Presented at the Workshop on ‘Mineralisation associated with acid magmatism’, Nagpur; Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ. 13 104–107.Google Scholar
  23. Ramakrishnan M 1990 Crustal development in southern Bastar, Central India craton; Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ. 28 44–66.Google Scholar
  24. Ramaswamy C, Deshpande M L, Murti K S, Jaiswar H P and Jesani R S 1976 Tin-bearing pegmatites of Bastar, M.P.; Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ. 3 185–189.Google Scholar
  25. Ramesh Babu P V 1990 Petrology, geochemistry and mineralisation in parts of the Bastar–Koraput Pegmatite Belt, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, India; PhD Thesis (unpublished), Osmania Univ., Hyderabad, 178p.Google Scholar
  26. Ramesh Babu P V 1993 Tin and rare metal pegmatites of the Bastar–Koraput Pegmatite Belt, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, India: Characterisation and classification; J. Geol. Soc. India 42(2) 180–190.Google Scholar
  27. Ramesh Babu P V 1999 Rare metal and rare earth pegmatites of central India; In: Special issue on ‘Rare metal and rare earth pegmatites of India’ (eds) Mahadevan T M and Dhana Raju R, Expl. Res. At. Min. 12 7–52.Google Scholar
  28. Ramesh Babu P V and Dhana Raju R 2016 Granites, parental to the Bastar–Malkangiri tin-rare metal pegmatites in Chhattisgarh and Odisha, India; In: Proceedings volume, ‘Hutton India conference’, 27 November 2016, Hyderabad, pp. 103–115.Google Scholar
  29. Ramesh Babu P V and Dhana Raju R 2018 Geochemistry and metamorphic history of the meta-sedimentary rocks in the Bastar–Malkangiri pegmatite belt in parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha, India; J. Appl. Geochem. 20(3) 313–324.Google Scholar
  30. Ramesh Babu P V and Ramachar T M 1983 A note on the newly discovered columbite–tantalite, beryl and cassiterite bearing pegmatites in Katekalyan area, Bastar District, M.P.; Curr. Sci. 52 24–25.Google Scholar
  31. Ramesh Babu P V, Pandey B K and Dhana Raju R 1993 Rb–Sr ages on the granite and pegmatitic minerals from Bastar–Koraput pegmatite belt, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, India; J. Geol. Soc. India 42(1) 33–38.Google Scholar
  32. Reddy C R, Pant D R, Rao B L and Sankar Das M 1975 Neutron activation analysis of 13 minor and trace elements in geological samples; Radioanal. Chem. 33 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Satyanarayana K 1986 Geochemistry of amphibolites and associated rocks in parts of the Nellore – Gudur pegmatite belt, Andhra Pradesh; Ph.D. Thesis, Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (Unpublished), 264p.Google Scholar
  34. Shapiro L and Brannock W W 1955 Rapid analysis of silicate, carbonate and phosphate rocks; U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 144-A.Google Scholar
  35. Solodov N A 1964 The criteria of evaluation of rare-metal granite-pegmatites; 22nd Session, Int. Geol. Cong. India Proc. Vol. of Section 6 on ‘Minerals and Genesis of Pegmatites’, pp. 193–212.Google Scholar
  36. Viswanathan S 1989 Wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in exploration and research for atomic minerals; Expl. Res. At. Miner. 2 247–268.Google Scholar
  37. Walker F and Poldervaart A 1949 Karroo dolerites of the union of south Africa; Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 60 591–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wood D A 1979 A variably veined sub-oceanic upper mantle – genetic significance for mid-ocean ridge basalts from geochemical evidence; Geology 7 499–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, DAEHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.HyderbadIndia
  3. 3.HyderbadIndia

Personalised recommendations