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Groundwater quality in a semi-arid region of India: Suitability for drinking, agriculture and fluoride exposure risk

  • Tirumalesh KeesariEmail author
  • Uday Kumar Sinha
  • Pradeep Kamaraj
  • Diana Anoubam Sharma
Article
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Fluoride exposure through consumption of drinking water was studied in a heavily industrialised area and suitable measures were suggested to control the fluorosis risk to residents. Groundwater quality conforms to World Health Organization (WHO) criterion for drinking except for fluoride and is also suitable for irrigation. Fluoride concentration ranges from 0.1 to 4.4 mg/l and 39% of the total samples measured were found to be contaminated as per WHO limits (1.5 mg/l). The fluoride intake through drinking water was calculated to be 0.10 mg/kg/d for infants, 0.09 mg/kg/d for children and 0.05 mg/kg/d for adults with a corresponding exposure dose exceeding 2.1, 1.9 and 1.1 times for infants, children and adults, respectively, compared to the minimum risk value of 0.05 mg/kg/d. The fluorosis risk map indicates that with a few exceptions of some western and northwestern parts, the entire study area is prone to fluorosis and the highest being in the south central part. The fluoride exposure dose suggests the risk of mottled enamel among residents if untreated groundwater is provided for drinking for a long time. Considering the hydrogeological setup of this region, various amelioration methods to help mitigate the ill effects of high fluoride were evaluated and better nutrition containing calcium and vitamin C was found to be the most effective and viable option.

Keywords

Fluorosis risk zone exposure dose amelioration Odisha 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank the Talcher Power Plant authorities and colleagues from Isotope Hydrology Section, BARC, for their support during sampling. Shri K S S Sarma, Head, Isotope and Radiation Application Division, BARC, is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Isotope and Radiation Application DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesAnnamalai UniversityChidambaramIndia
  3. 3.Department of Environment StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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