Advertisement

Mapping of groundwater spring potential zone using geospatial techniques in the Central Nepal Himalayas: A case example of Melamchi–Larke area

  • Motilal GhimireEmail author
  • Prem Sagar Chapagain
  • Shova Shrestha
Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

Studies assessing the groundwater spring potential in the Himalayan mountain slopes are very important for sustainable water resources management and build climate resilience in mountains, but such studies are few in the Himalayas. Hence, this paper attempts to identify the groundwater spring potential zone in the Central Himalayas of Nepal. About 412 groundwater springs were surveyed, which were mainly originated from the weathered, jointed or fractured rock aquifers in the high-grade metamorphosed rocks. Eleven influencing factors, viz., altitude, slope gradient, slope shape, relative relief, flow accumulation, drainage density, geology, lineament density, land use and vegetation density were considered in assessing the groundwater spring potential using the weight of evidence method. Weight indicating the probability of groundwater spring occurrence on multiple classes of each factor was calculated and finally summed up to determine the groundwater spring potential. Gentle slope, low relative relief, high flow accumulation, north- and east-facing slopes, denser lineament density, altitude class of 1500–2500 m, high vegetation density, and forest demonstrated a higher likelihood of spring occurrence. Validation of the groundwater spring potential map was successful, which implies the method can be replicated in a similar biophysical environment, where the hydrogeological or geophysical surveyed data is not available.

Keywords

Groundwater spring weight of evidence hydrogeology Himalayas 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was based on the research financed under the Climate Change Research Grants Program implemented by the Nepal Academy of Science and Technology. The programme is part of the Mainstreaming Climate Change Risk Management in the Development project. This project is a component of Nepal’s Pilot Program for Climate Resilience and is executed by the Ministry of Population and Environment (Nepal), financed by the Climate Investment Funds, administered by the Asian Development Bank with technical assistance from ICEM, METCON and APTEC. The authors also express their sincere thanks to Mr. Sukadev Khanal and Mr. Udhab Karki who have assisted for GPS-based groundwater spring inventory in the field.

References

  1. Abuzied S M and Alrefaee H A 2017 Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt; Hydrogeol. J. 25(7) 2067–2088.Google Scholar
  2. Agrawala S, Raksakulthai V, van Aalst M, Larsen P, Smith J and Reynolds J 2003 Development and climate change in Nepal: Focus on water resources and hydropower; OECD, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. Alley W M, Healy R W, LaBaugh J W and Reilly T E 2002 Flow and storage in groundwater systems; Science 296(5575) 1985–1990.Google Scholar
  4. Andermann C, Longuevergne L, Bonnet S, Crave A, Davy P and Gloaguen R 2012 Impact of transient groundwater storage on the discharge of Himalayan rivers; Nat. Geosci. 5(2) 127–132.Google Scholar
  5. Bartarya S 1989 Hydrogeology, geo-environmental problems and watershed management strategies in a central Himalayan river basin, Kumaun, India; Headwater Control IUFRO/WASWC/CSVIS, Plzen, Czechoslovakia, pp. 308–318.Google Scholar
  6. Bates B, Kundzewicz Z and Wu S 2008 Climate change and water; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Secretariat.Google Scholar
  7. Beven K J and Kirkby M J 1979 A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology/Un modèle à base physique de zone d’appel variable de l’hydrologie du bassin versant; Hydrolog. Sci. J. 24(1) 43–69.Google Scholar
  8. Bonham-Carter G F 1994 Geographic information systems for geoscientists – modeling with GIS; Comp. Meth. Geos. 13 398.Google Scholar
  9. Bookhagen B and Burbank D W 2010 Toward a complete Himalayan hydrological budget: Spatiotemporal distribution of snowmelt and rainfall and their impact on river discharge; J. Geophys. Res. Earth 11(F3),  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JF001426.
  10. Brekke L D 2009 Climate change and water resources management: A federal perspective; DIANE Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Bruijnzeel L A 2004 Hydrological functions of tropical forests: Not seeing the soil for the trees?; Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 104(1) 185–228.Google Scholar
  12. Calder I R 2007 Forests and water – ensuring forest benefits outweigh water costs; Forest Ecol. Manag. 251(1) 110–120.Google Scholar
  13. Chapagain P S, Ghimire M and Shrestha S 2017 Status of natural springs in the Melamchi region of the Nepal Himalayas in the context of climate change; Environ. Dev. Sustain.,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-0036-4.
  14. Chinnasamy P and Prathapar S A 2016 Methods to investigate the hydrology of the Himalayan springs: A review, Vol. 169, International Water Management Institute (IWMI).Google Scholar
  15. Crawford T J and Kath R L 2005 Ground water exploration and development in igneous and metamorphic rocks of the southern Piedmont/Blue Ridge; Georgia Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  16. Dhital M R 2015 Geology of the Nepal Himalaya: Regional perspective of the classic collided Orogen; Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Dhital M R, Sunuwar S C and Shrestha R 2002 Geology and structure of the Sundarijal–Melamchi area, central Nepal; In: Third Nepal Geological Congress, 21p.Google Scholar
  18. Dietrich W E, Reiss R, Hsu M L and Montgomery D R 1995 A process-based model for colluvial soil depth and shallow landsliding using digital elevation data; Hydrol. Process. 9(3–4) 383–400.Google Scholar
  19. DMG 2005 Geological map of parts of Sindhupalchok and Nuwakot District, Sheet No. 2785-03(72E/9), Department of Mines and Geology, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  20. Florinsky I V 2000 Relationships between topographically expressed zones of flow accumulation and sites of fault intersection: Analysis by means of digital terrain modeling; Environ. Modell. Softw. 15(1) 87–100.Google Scholar
  21. Forster C and Smith L 1988 Groundwater flow systems in mountainous terrain: 2. Controlling factors; Water Resour. Res. 24(7) 1011–1023.Google Scholar
  22. Galassi D M, Lombardo P, Fiasca B, Di Cioccio A, Di Lorenzo T, Petitta M and Di Carlo P 2014 Earthquakes trigger the loss of groundwater biodiversity; Sci. Rep.-UK 4 6273.Google Scholar
  23. Ganapuram S, Kumar G V, Krishna I M, Kahya E and Demirel M C 2009 Mapping of groundwater potential zones in the Musi basin using remote sensing data and GIS; Adv. Eng. Softw. 40(7) 506–518.Google Scholar
  24. Ghimire M 2011 Landslide occurrence and its relation with terrain factors in the Siwalik Hills, Nepal: Case study of susceptibility assessment in three basins; Nat. Hazards 56(1) 299–320.Google Scholar
  25. Ghimire C P, Bruijnzeel L A, Lubczynski M W and Bonell M 2012 Rainfall interception by natural and planted forests in the Middle Mountains of Central Nepal; J. Hydrol. 475 270–280.Google Scholar
  26. Gilmour D A, Bonell M and Cassells D 1987 The effects of forestation on soil hydraulic properties in the Middle Hills of Nepal: A preliminary assessment; Mt. Res. Dev. 239–249.Google Scholar
  27. Green T R 2016 Linking climate change and groundwater; In: Integrated groundwater management, Springer, pp. 97–141.Google Scholar
  28. Greenbaum D 1992 Structural influences on the occurrence of groundwater in SE Zimbabwe; Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 66(1) 77–85.Google Scholar
  29. Gurdak J S, Hanson R T and Green T R 2009 Effects of climate variability and change on groundwater resources of the United States; US Geological Survey.Google Scholar
  30. Guru B, Seshan K and Bera S 2016 Frequency ratio model for groundwater potential mapping and its sustainable management in cold desert, India; J. King Saud Univ.-Sci. 29(3) 333–347.Google Scholar
  31. Gurung G B and Nepal P A 2007 Watershed management approach for climate change adaptation practical action; Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  32. Higgins M W, Atkins R L, Crawford T J, Crawford III R F, Brooks R and Cook R B 1985 Structure, stratigraphy, tectonostratigraphy, and evolution of the southernmost part of the Appalachian orogen, Georgia and Alabama; Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Programs USA, 17.Google Scholar
  33. Hudson R and Anderson A 2006 Russell creek: Summary of research and implications for professional practice BC ministry of forests and range, coast forest region, Nanaimo, BC extension note no. EN 22.Google Scholar
  34. Hydrological Studies 2017 http://www.gwrdb.gov.np/publications.php.
  35. ICIMOD 2015 Reviving the drying springs reinforcing social development and economic growth in the Midhills of Nepal; Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  36. Immerzeel W W, Van Beek L P and Bierkens M F 2010 Climate change will affect the Asian water towers; Science 328(5894) 1382–1385.Google Scholar
  37. Jaiswal R, Mukherjee S, Krishnamurthy J and Saxena R 2003 Role of remote sensing and GIS techniques for generation of groundwater prospect zones towards rural development – An approach; Int. J. Remote Sens. 24(5) 993–1008.Google Scholar
  38. Jensen J R 2009 Remote sensing of the environment: An earth resource perspective; 2nd edn, Pearson Education India.Google Scholar
  39. Jha M K, Chowdhury A, Chowdary V and Peiffer S 2007 Groundwater management and development by integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems: Prospects and constraints; Water Resour. Manag. 21(2) 427–467.Google Scholar
  40. Karmacharya J, Shrestha A, Rajbhandari R and Shrestha M 2007 Climate change scenarios for Nepal based on regional climate model RegCM3, Final report; Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Nepal.Google Scholar
  41. Kerrich R 1986 Fluid transport in lineaments; Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 317 219–251.Google Scholar
  42. Kolawole M, Ishaku J, Daniel A and Owonipa O 2016 Lineament mapping and groundwater occurrence within the vicinity of Osara Dam, Itakpe-Okene area, North Central Nigeria, using landsat data; J. Geosci. Geomatics 4 42–52.Google Scholar
  43. Krishnamurthy J, Venkatesa Kumar N, Jayaraman V and Manivel M 1996 An approach to demarcate ground water potential zones through remote sensing and a geographical information system; Int. J. Remote Sens. 17(10) 1867–1884.Google Scholar
  44. Lavé J and Avouac J 2001 Fluvial incision and tectonic uplift across the Himalayas of central Nepal; J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea 106(B11) 26561–26591.Google Scholar
  45. Lerner D N and Harris B 2009 The relationship between land use and groundwater resources and quality; Land Use Policy 26 S265–S273.Google Scholar
  46. Machiwal D and Singh P 2015 Comparing GIS-based multi-criteria decision-making and Boolean logic modelling approaches for delineating groundwater recharge zones; Arab. J. Geosci. 8(12) 10675–10691.Google Scholar
  47. Magesh N, Chandrasekar N and Soundranayagam J P 2012 Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques; Geosci. Front. 3(2) 189–196.Google Scholar
  48. Mahamuni K and Kulkarni H 2012 Groundwater resources and spring hydrogeology in South Sikkim, with special reference to climate change; In: Climate Change Sikkim – Patterns, Impacts, Initiatives, pp 261–274.Google Scholar
  49. Marklund L and Wörman A 2007 The impact of hydraulic conductivity on topography driven groundwater flow; Publs. Inst. Geophys. Pol. Acad. Sci. E 7 159–167.Google Scholar
  50. Moghaddam D D, Rezaei M, Pourghasemi H, Pourtaghie Z and Pradhan B 2015 Groundwater spring potential mapping using bivariate statistical model and GIS in the Taleghan watershed, Iran; Arab J. Geosci. 8(2) 913–929.Google Scholar
  51. Montgomery D R and Manga M 2003 Streamflow and water well responses to earthquakes; Science 300(5628) 2047–2049.Google Scholar
  52. Mukherjee S 1996 Targeting saline aquifer by remote sensing and geophysical methods in a part of Hamirpur–Kanpur, India; Hydrogeol. J. 19 53–64.Google Scholar
  53. Mukherjee A, Saha D, Harvey C F, Taylor R G, Ahmed K M and Bhanja S N 2015 Groundwater systems of the Indian sub-continent; J. Hydrol. Reg. Stud. 4 1–14.Google Scholar
  54. Murthy K 2000 Ground water potential in a semi-arid region of Andhra Pradesh – a geographical information system approach; Int. J. Remote Sens. 21(9) 1867–1884.Google Scholar
  55. Myers N 1983 Tropical moist forests: Over-exploited and under-utilized?; Forest Ecol. Manag. 6(1) 59–79.Google Scholar
  56. Nag S 2005 Application of lineament density and hydrogeomorphology to delineate groundwater potential zones of Baghmundi block in Purulia district, West Bengal; J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens. 33(4) 521–529.Google Scholar
  57. Nobre R, Rotunno Filho O, Mansur W, Nobre M and Cosenza C 2007 Groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping using GIS, modeling and a fuzzy logic tool; J. Contam. Hydrol. 94(3) 277–292.Google Scholar
  58. NRSA 1987 Land and water resources survey of drought-affected district – Kolar, Karnataka; Technical Report, Hyderabad.Google Scholar
  59. Oh H-J, Kim Y-S, Choi J-K, Park E and Lee S 2011 GIS mapping of regional probabilistic groundwater potential in the area of Pohang City, Korea; J. Hydrol. 399(3) 158–172.Google Scholar
  60. Ozdemir A 2011 GIS-based groundwater spring potential mapping in the Sultan Mountains (Konya, Turkey) using frequency ratio, weights of evidence and logistic regression methods and their comparison; J. Hydrol. 411(3) 290–308.Google Scholar
  61. Pack R T, Tarboton D and Goodwin C 1999 SINMAP 2.0 – A stability index approach to Terrain stability hazard mapping, user’s manual.Google Scholar
  62. Palazzoli I, Maskey S, Uhlenbrook S, Nana E and Bocchiola D 2015 Impact of prospective climate change on water resources and crop yields in the Indrawati basin Nepal; Agr. Syst. 133 143–157.Google Scholar
  63. Pandey V P, Chapagain S K and Kazama F 2010 Evaluation of groundwater environment of Kathmandu Valley; Environ. Earth Sci. 60(6) 1329–1342.Google Scholar
  64. Pandey V P, Shrestha S and Kazama F 2013 A GIS-based methodology to delineate potential areas for groundwater development: A case study from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Appl. Water Sci. 3(2) 453–465.Google Scholar
  65. Pathak D R, Hiratsuka A, Awata I and Chen L 2009 Groundwater vulnerability assessment in shallow aquifer of Kathmandu Valley using GIS-based DRASTIC model; Environ. Geol. 57(7) 1569–1578.Google Scholar
  66. Patil S G and Mohite N M 2014 Identification of groundwater recharge potential zones for a watershed using remote sensing and GIS; Int. J. Geomat. Geosci. 4(3) 485.Google Scholar
  67. Paudel S and Vetaas O R 2014 Effects of topography and land use on woody plant species composition and beta diversity in an arid Trans-Himalayan landscape, Nepal; J. Mt. Sci.-Engl. 11(5) 1112–1122.Google Scholar
  68. Peking University TU 2013 Climate change adaptation through water resource management: Comparative study between Yellow and Koshi River Basins; Peking University and Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  69. Prabhakar A and Tiwari H 2015 Land use and land cover effect on groundwater storage; Model Earth Syst. Environ. 1(4) 45.Google Scholar
  70. Pradhan B 2009 Groundwater potential zonation for basaltic watersheds using satellite remote sensing data and GIS techniques; Cent. Eur. J. Geosci. 1(1) 120–129.Google Scholar
  71. Pradhan N S, Sijapati S and Bajracharya S R 2015 Farmers’ responses to climate change impact on water availability: Insights from the Indrawati Basin in Nepal; Int. J. Water Resour. D31(2) 269–283.Google Scholar
  72. Rao N S 2006 Groundwater potential index in a crystalline terrain using remote sensing data; Environ. Geol. 50(7) 1067–1076.Google Scholar
  73. Sabins F F 2007 Remote sensing: Principles and applications; Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  74. Salama R, Tapley I, Ishii T and Hawkes G 1994 Identification of areas of recharge and discharge using Landsat-TM satellite imagery and aerial photography mapping techniques; J. Hydrol. 162(1–2) 119–141.Google Scholar
  75. Saraf A and Choudhury P 1998 Integrated remote sensing and GIS for groundwater exploration and identification of artificial recharge sites; Int. J. Remote Sens. 19(10) 1825–1841.Google Scholar
  76. Sener E, Davraz A and Ozcelik M 2005 An integration of GIS and remote sensing in groundwater investigations: A case study in Burdur, Turkey; Hydrogeol. J. 13 826–834.Google Scholar
  77. Shaban A, Khawlie M and Abdallah C 2006 Use of remote sensing and GIS to determine recharge potential zones: The case of Occidental Lebanon; Hydrogeol. J. 14 433–443.Google Scholar
  78. Shahid S, Nath S and Roy J 2000 Groundwater potential modelling in a soft rock area using a GIS; Int. J. Remote Sens. 21(9) 1919–1924.Google Scholar
  79. Sharma B et al. 2016 Springs, storage towers, and water conservation in the midhills of Nepal; ICIMOD Working Paper.Google Scholar
  80. Smerdon B D, Redding T and Beckers J 2009 An overview of the effects of forest management on groundwater hydrology; J. Ecosyst. Manag. 10(1) 22–44.Google Scholar
  81. Solomon S and Quiel F 2006 Groundwater study using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the central highlands of Eritrea; Hydrogeol. J. 14 1029–1041.Google Scholar
  82. Spears J 1982 Rehabilitating watersheds; Financ. Dev. 19(1) 30–33.Google Scholar
  83. Spiegelhalter D J 1986 A statistical view of uncertainty artificial intelligence & statistics (ed.) Gale WA, Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  84. Tambe S, Kharel G, Arrawatia M, Kulkarni H, Mahamuni K and Ganeriwala A K 2012 Reviving dying springs: Climate change adaptation experiments from the Sikkim Himalaya; Mt. Res. Dev. 32(1) 62–72.Google Scholar
  85. Thangarajan M 2007 Groundwater flow and mass transport modeling; Capital Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  86. Tweed S O, Leblanc M, Webb J A and Lubczynski M W 2007 Remote sensing and GIS for mapping groundwater recharge and discharge areas in salinity prone catchments, southeastern Australia; Hydrogeol. J. 15 75–96.Google Scholar
  87. Valdiya K and Bartarya S 1989 Diminishing discharges of mountain springs in a part of Kumaun Himalaya; Curr. Sci. 58(4) 417–426.Google Scholar
  88. van Dijk A I, Hairsine P B, Arancibia J P and Dowling T I 2007 Reforestation, water availability and stream salinity: A multi-scale analysis in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia; Forest Ecol. Manag. 251(1) 94–109.Google Scholar
  89. Van Westen C 2002 Use of weights of evidence modeling for landslide susceptibility mapping; International Institute for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, Enschede, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  90. WECS/IMWI 2002 Integrated development and management of water resources in the Indrāvati Basin, Nepal; Project Synthesis Report, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  91. Winter T C 1998 Ground water and surface water: A single resource, Vol. 1139, DIANE Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  92. Yeh H-F, Lee C-H, Hsu K-C and Chang P-H 2009 GIS for the assessment of the groundwater recharge potential zone; Environ. Geol. 58(1) 185–195.Google Scholar
  93. Younger P L 2007 Groundwater in the environment: An introduction; John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Department of GeographyTribhuvan UniversityKirtipur, KathmanduNepal

Personalised recommendations