Advertisement

Gypsum–anhydrites in 1.9 Ga Vempalle Formation, Cuddapah basin, India: A note on the Palaeoproterozoic environment and diagenetic condition

  • Purnajit Bhattacharjee
  • Sukanta Goswami
  • Sangeeta Bhagat
  • M B Verma
Article
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

The Cuddapah basin consists of generally well-preserved Palaeoproterozoic–Neoproterozoic sedimentary and associated volcanic rocks. The detailed lithological studies of sedimentary rocks of Vempalle Formation from the narrow linear belt of 15 km, in the southern margin, show the occurrence of layered gypsum in the cherty dolostone–shale intercalated facies, red shale and phosphatic dolostone facies of the Vempalle Formation. The petromineralogical studies reveal that gypsum is in close association with anhydrites. Microscopically, three different types of gypsum and anhydrite are identified, viz., lath-shaped, equant-shaped and anhedral-shaped grains. The equant variety corresponds to a granular gypsum, whereas the anhedral grains of gypsum exist as the granular and fibrous variety as seen in the hand specimen. The presence of gypsum/anhydrite has been confirmed by the petromineralogical, X-ray diffraction and chemical analytical data. The phosphatic dolostone is the host rock for stratabound type of uranium deposit at Tummalapalle, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh, which is one of the most unique types of uranium mineralisation in the world. Abundant pseudomorphs of gypsum and anhydrite relicts and discontinuous gypsum layers within these dolostones, nodules of chert and gypsum indicate the interrelationship between the diagenesis and genesis of uranium mineralisation which indicates the carbonate precipitation in the sulphate-rich hypersaline environments.

Keywords

Gypsum Vempalle Formation Uranium deposit Cuddapah basin Andhra Pradesh 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We express our sincere gratitude to honourable Director, AMD for encouragement and infrastructure support to publish this work. We thank the scientists of Atomic Minerals Directorate at chemistry laboratory, Bengaluru and X-ray diffraction (XRD) laboratory, Hyderabad, for analysis of samples.

References

  1. Absar N, Nizamudheen B M, Augustine S, Managave S and Balakrishnan S 2017 C, O, Sr and Nd isotope systematics of carbonates of Papaghni sub-basin, Andhra Pradesh, India: Implications for genesis of carbonate-hosted stratiform uranium mineralisation and geodynamic evolution of the Cuddapah basin; Lithos 263 88–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aleali M, Rahimpour-Bonab H, Moussavi-Harami R and Jahani D 2013 Environmental and sequence stratigraphic implications of anhydrite textures: A case from the Lower Triassic of the Central Persian Gulf; J. Asian Earth Sci. 75 110–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhagat S, Goswami S and Pandey S 2014 Systematic stable isotopic and petrographical studies of the mineralized and non-mineralised dolostone borehole core samples from Tummalapalle and extension areas to understand dolomitisation processes vis-a-vis uranium mineralisation; Unpublished R & D Report of F.S. 2013–14, AMD, DAE.Google Scholar
  4. Bhattacharjee P, Vijaya Kumar T, Murugan M G and Vidyasagar D 2012 Depositional environment of Vempalle Formation of Cuddapah basin in Eguvapalle–Nallagondavaripalle area, Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India; Explor. Res. At. Miner. (EARFAM) 22 81–91.Google Scholar
  5. Bhattacharya A and Chakraborty C 2000 Analysis of sedimentary successions: A field manual; Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.Google Scholar
  6. Blatt H 1992 Sedimentary petrology; 2nd edn, W.H. Freeman, 514p.Google Scholar
  7. Boggs S Jr 2006 Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy; 4th edn, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  8. Borchert T H 1977 On the formation of lower Cretaceous potassium salts and tachyhydrite in the Sergipe Basin (Brazil) with some remarks on similar occurrences in West Africa (Gabon, Angola, etc.); In: Time and strata bound ore deposits (eds) Kelmm D D and Schneider H J, Springer, Berlin, pp. 94–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chakrabarti G, Shome D, Kumar S, Stephens G M and Kah L 2014 Carbonate platform development in a Paleoproterozoic extensional basin, Vempalle Formation, Cuddapah Basin, India; J. Asian Earth Sci. 91 263–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chakraborty P P, Sarkar S, Patranabis-Deb S 2012 Tectonics and sedimentation of Proterozoic Basins of Peninsular India; Proc. Indian Nat. Sci. Acad. 78(3) 393–400.Google Scholar
  11. Chaudhuri A K, Saha D, Deb G K, Patranabis-Deb S, Mukherjee M K and Ghosh G 2002 The Purana basins of southern cratonic province of India – A case study for Mesoproterozoic fossil rifts; Gondwana Res. 5 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goswami S, Bhattacharjee P, Bhagat S, Suresh Kumar and Zakaulla S 2015 Petrography of chert nodules in stromatolitic dolostone of Vempalle Formation, along Tummalapalle–Motnutalapalle, Cuddapah basin, India; Indian J. Geosci. 69 13–24.Google Scholar
  13. Goswami S, Mukherjee A, Zakaulla S and Rai A K 2016a Microbial mat related features in Palaeoproterozoic Gulcheru Formation and their role in low grade uranium mineralisation; Int. J. Petrochem. Sci. Eng. 1(4) 19p,  https://doi.org/10.15406/ipcse.2016.01.00019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goswami S, Mukherjee A, Zakaulla S and Rai A K 2016b Stress states, faulting and their effects on the Papaghni Group, Cuddapah basin, India: A study along Giddankivaripalle–Madyalabodu tract; Indian J. Geosci. 70(1) 17–33.Google Scholar
  15. Goswami S, Bhagat S, Zakaulla S, Suresh K and Rai A K 2017a Role of organic matter in Uranium mineralisation in Vempalle Dolostone; Cuddapah Basin, India; J. Geol. Soc. India 89(2) 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goswami S, Mukherjee A, Bhattacharjee P and Zakaulla S 2017b Primary sedimentary structures and MISS in Gulcheru quartzite along SW part of Cuddapah Basin; J. Geol. Soc. India 89(5) 511–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. GSI 1981 Geological and mineral map of the Cuddapah basin; 2nd edn, (1:250,000), Geological Survey of India, Calcutta, India.Google Scholar
  18. Hardie L A 1978 Evaporites, rifting and the role of \(\text{CaCl}_{2}\) hydrothermal brines; Geol. Soc. Am., Abs. Programs 10(7) 416.Google Scholar
  19. Hefferan K and O’Brien J 2010 Earth materials; John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Wiley–Black Well, UK.Google Scholar
  20. Holland H D 1978 The chemistry of the atmosphere and oceans; Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Jeyagopal A V, Dhana Raju R, Maithani P B and Chaki A 2008 Cyclic sedimentation and classification of the Papaghni Group of sediments, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh; J. Geol. Soc. India 71 363–370.Google Scholar
  22. King W 1872 Cuddapah and Kurnool formations in the Madras Presidency; Mem. Geol. Surv. India 8 1–346.Google Scholar
  23. Knauth L P 2005 Temperature and salinity history of the Precambrian ocean: Implications for the course of microbial evolution; Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 219 53–69,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.10.014. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lakshminarayana G, Bhattacharjee S and Ramanaidu K V 2001 Sedimentation and stratigraphic framework in the Cuddapah basin; Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ. 55 31–58.Google Scholar
  25. Meijerink A M J, Rao D P and Rupke J 1984 Stratigraphic and structural development of the Precambrian Cuddapah Basin, SE India; Precamb. Res. 26 57–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nagaraja Rao B K, Rajurkar S T, Ramalingaswami G and Ravindra Babu B 1987 Stratigraphy, structure and evolution of Cuddapah Basin; In: Purana Basins of Peninsular India (ed.) Radhakrishna B P, Geol. Soc. India 6 33–86.Google Scholar
  27. Patranabis-Deb S, Saha D and Tripathy V 2012 Basin stratigraphy, sea-level fluctuations and their global tectonic connections – Evidence from the Proterozoic Cuddapah Basin; Geol. J. 47 263–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Phansalkar V G, Kale A S, Karmalkar N R and Kale V S 1991 An unusual evaporite association from the Papaghni Group, Cuddapah Basin; J. Geol. Soc. India 37 75–79.Google Scholar
  29. Rai A K 2012 Mineralogy, geochemistry and fluid inclusion studies in stratabound uranium deposits of Vempalle dolostone around Kanampalle, SW part of Cuddapah basin, AP, India; Ph.D. Thesis (unpublished), University of Mysore.Google Scholar
  30. Rai A K, Zakaulla S, Jeygopal A V, Vasudeva Rao M, Naghbhushna J C and Vardaraju H N 2002 Uranium mineralisation in southwestern part of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh; Expl. Res. Atomic Min. 14 79–94.Google Scholar
  31. Rai A K, Zakaulla S and Chaki A 2010 Proterozoic stratabound carbonate rock (dolostone) hosted uranium deposits in Vempalle formation in Cuddapah basin, India, IAEA; In: International symposium on uranium raw material for nuclear fuel cycle, June 22–26, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  32. Rai A K, Zakaulla S, Vidyasagar D, Murgan M G, Birua M K and Sivasubramanian R 2011 Geochemistry of the uraniferous dolostones from areas around Kanampalle in south western margin of Cuddapah basin; Indian Mineral. 45(1) 24–35.Google Scholar
  33. Rai A K, Pandey U K, Zakaulla S and Parihar P S 2015 New 1.9–2.0 Ga, Pb–Pb (PbSL), age of dolomites from Vempalle Formation, Lower Cuddapah Supergroup, Eastern Dharwar craton, India; J. Geol. Soc. India 86(2) 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rajurkar S T, Ramalingaswami G 1975 Facies variation within the Upper Cuddapah Strata in the northern part of Cuddapah Basin; In: Precambrian Geology of the Peninsular Shield, Part 1. Geological Survey of India, Miscellaneous Publication, Geological Survey of India, Kolkata, 23, pp. 157–164.Google Scholar
  35. Ramakrishnan M and Vaidyanadhan R 2008 Geology of India, Vols. 1 and 2; Geol. Soc. India, Text Book Ser. 556 994p.Google Scholar
  36. Saha D and Tripathy V 2012 Tuff beds in Kurnool Sub basin, southern India and implications for felsic volcanism in Proterozoic intracratonic basins; Geosci. Front. 3(4) 429–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saha D, Ghosh G, Chakraborty A K and Chakraborti S 2009 Comparable Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences in Palnad and Kurnool subbasins and their palaeogeographic and tectonic implications; Indian J. Geol. 78 175–192.Google Scholar
  38. Sen S N and Narasimha R 1967 Igneous activity in Cuddapah basin and adjacent areas and suggestions on the paleogeography of the basin; In: Proceeding of symposium; Upper Mantle Project 8; GRB & NGRI Publication, Hyderabad, pp. 261–285.Google Scholar
  39. Shields G A and Kasting J F 2006 A palaeotemperature curve for the Precambrian oceans based on silicon isotopes in cherts; Nature 443 969–972,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05239. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sonnenfeld P 1984 Brines and evaporites; Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Valyashko M G 1972 Playa lakes – A necessary stage in the development of salt-bearing basin; In: Geology of saline deposit (ed.) Richter-Bernburg G, UNESCO, Paris, Earth Sciences Series 7 41–51.Google Scholar
  42. Vasudeva Rao M, Nagabhushana J C and Jeyagopal A V 1989 Uranium mineralisation in the middle Proterozoic carbonate rocks of the Cuddapah Supergroup, southern peninsular India; Expl. Res. Atomic Min. 2 29–38.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Purnajit Bhattacharjee
    • 1
  • Sukanta Goswami
    • 1
  • Sangeeta Bhagat
    • 1
  • M B Verma
    • 2
  1. 1.Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Department of Atomic EnergyBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Department of Atomic EnergyHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations