RETRACTED ARTICLE: Larvicidal effects of GC-MS fractions from leaf extracts of Cassia uniflora Mill non Spreng

  • V P Toro
  • A D Padhye
  • M V Biware
  • N A GhayaEmail author


Invasive weeds are becoming dominant over native plant communities and they are known to contain phytochemicals having biocidal activities. They are researched in order to manage their growth and make use of their phytochemicals. Larvicides of plant origin may serve as an alternative biocontrol technique because mosquito control is becoming a serious issue due to the harmful effects of synthetic insecticides. In the present study the larvicidal activity of Cassia uniflora Mill non Spreng dry leaf powder fractions was studied. Four ethyl acetate fractions, viz. 20%EA, 40%EA, 60%EA, 80%EA, were obtained by column chromatography. The second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to fractions with concentrations ranging between 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm. Observations for mortality were taken for 8 h of exposure and followed by 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Among the four fractions, 20% and 60% fractions showed significant larvicidal activity against treated mosquito species at 1000 ppm concentration. From 20% and 60% ethyl acetate fractions, major compounds identified by GC-MS analysis were hexadecanoic acid and ethyl ester which are found to possess antifungal, pesticidal, nematicidal and antioxidant activity while benzyl butyl phthalate is known to inhibit the property of mimicking as ecdysone egonist which could be possible reason for mortality in A. aegepti larvae.


Cassia uniflora fractionation larvicidal activity GC-MS analysis phytochemicals 



The authors are thankful to Principal, MES Abasaheb Garware College and heads of Chemistry Botany and Zoology departments for providing the facilities for this research work. They are also thankful to head, department of Zoology, Prof. Ramkrishna More Arts, Commerce and Science College, Akurdi, Pune, India.


No funds have been received from any agency for this research work.


  1. Anees M 2008 Larvicidal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Parasitol. Res. 103 1451–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arivoli S, Tennyson S, Raveen R, Jayakumar M, Senthilkumar B, Govindarajan M, Babujanarthanam R and Vijayanand S 2016 Larvicidal activity of fractions of Sphaeranthusindicus Linnaeus (Asteraceae) ethyl acetate whole plant extract against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus 1762, Anopheles stephensi Liston 1901 and Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae). Int. J. Mosquito. Res. 3 18–30Google Scholar
  3. Aydin R, koprucu K, Dorucu M, Koprucu S and Pala M 2005 Acute toxicity of synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin on the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) embryos and larvae. Aquacul. Int. 13 451–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elango G, Rahuman A, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir A and Venkatesan C 2009 Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitol. Res. 104 1381–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Elumalai D, Hemavathi M, Hemalatha P, Deepaa C and Kaleena P 2015 Larvicidal activity of catechin isolated from Leucas aspera against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 115(3) 1203–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fabjan E, Hulzebos E, Mennes W and Piersma A 2006 A category approach for reproductive effects of phthalates. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 36 695–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghayal N, Dhumal K, Deshpande N, Kulkarni A, Phadke A and Shah S 2007a Phytotoxic effects of Cassia uniflora leaf leachates on germination and seedling growth of radish (Raphanus sativus) and mustard (Brassica juncea). Allelopathy J. 19 361–372Google Scholar
  8. Ghayal N, Dhumal K, Deshpande N, Shah S and Ruikar A 2007b Studies on allelochemicals in Synedrella nodiflora and impact of its leaf leachates on germination and seedling growth of radish (Raphanus sativus) and Mustard (Brassica juncea). Asian J. Chem. 20 6114–6120Google Scholar
  9. Ghayal N, Dhumal K, Deshpande N, Shah S and Tambe A 2007c Steam volatile components from Cassia uniflora and Synedrella nodiflora by gas liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy. J. Ind. Council Chem. 24 60–62Google Scholar
  10. Ghayal N, Dhumal K, Gupta S, Phadke M and Parange S 2009 Morphophysiological investigations in some dominant alien invasive weeds Deccan pleateau. J. Plt. Inter. 4 33–39Google Scholar
  11. Ghayal N, Padhye A and Dhumal K 2010 Larvicidal activity of invasive weeds cassia uniflora and synedrella nodiflora. Int. J. Pharma. BioSci. 1 1–10Google Scholar
  12. Haldar K and Chandra G 2015 Evaluation of mosquitocidal potential of drypetes Roxburghii (wall.) green mature fruits against immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus say and Anopheles stephensi liston. Int. J. Pharm. Bio. Sci. 6(3) 624–636Google Scholar
  13. Hemalatha P, Elumalai D, Janaki A, Babu M, Velu K, Velayutham K and Kaleena P 2015 Larvicidal activity of Lantana camara aculeata against three important mosquito species. J. Ent. Zoo. Stud. 3 174–181Google Scholar
  14. Herrero O, Planello R and Morcillo G 2015 The plasticizer benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) alters the ecdysone hormone pathway, the cellular response to stress, the energy metabolism, and several detoxication mechanisms in Chironomus riparius larvae. Chemosphere 128 266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hostettmann K and Marston A 1995 Chemistry & pharmacology of natural products: Saponins (Cambridge University Press, New York) pp 548Google Scholar
  16. Jegadeeswari P, Nishanthini A, Muthukumarasamy S and Mohan V 2012 GC MS analysis of bioactive components of Aristolochia krysagathra (Aristolochiaceae). J. curr. chem. pharm. sc. 2(4) 226–232Google Scholar
  17. Khandagle A, Tare V, Raut K and Morey R 2011 Bioactivity of essential oils of Zingiber officinalis and Achyranthes aspera against mosquitoes. Parasitol. Res. 109 339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li Z, Wang Q, Ruan X, Pan C and Jiang D 2010 Phenolics and plant allelopathy. Molecules. 15 8933–8952PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Li D, Wang D, Li J and Chen C 2009 Allelopathic effects of Polygonatum odoratum rhizome extracts and its isolated allelochemicals. Allelopathy J. 23 119–128Google Scholar
  20. Nagao T, Ohta R, Marumo H, Shindo T, Yoshimura S and Ono H 2000 Effect of butyl benzyl phthalate in Sprague-Dawley rats after gavage administration: a two-generation reproductive study. Repro. Toxicol. 14 513–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rey D, Cuany A, Pautou MP and Meyran JC 1999 Differential sensitivity of mosquito taxa to vegetable tannins. J. Chem. Ecol. 25 37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reed L and Muench H 1938 A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am. J. Hygiene 27 493–497Google Scholar
  23. Rahuman A, Gopalakrishnan G, Ghouse B, Arumugam S and Himalayan B 2000 Effect of Feronia limonia on mosquito larvae. Fitoterapia 71 553–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reddy S, Bhanja M and Raju V 2000 Cassia uniflora Mill.: A new record for Andhra Pradesh, India. Ind. J. Forest. 23 324–325Google Scholar
  25. Sharma A, Kumar A and Tripathi P 2016 Evaluation of the larvicidal efficacy of five indigenous weeds against an Indian strain of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Parasitol. Res.
  26. Suman T, Elumalai D, Vignesh A, Kaleena P and Murugesan K 2012 Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the aerial extracts of a medicinal plant, Ammannia baccifera (Linn) against two important species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Dis. 2 S352–S355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Thanigaivel A, Srinivasan P, Senthil-Nathan S, Edwin E, Ponsanka A, Chellappandian M, Rani S, Escaline J and Kalaivani K 2017 Impact of Terminalia chebula Retz. against Aedes aegypti L. and non-target aquatic predatory insects. Ecotoxicol. Environ.Safety 137 210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tyagi T and Agarwal M 2017 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bioactive constituents in the ethanolic extract of Pistia stratiotes L. Int. J. Basic Appl. Med. Sci. 7 14–21Google Scholar
  29. Vitonde A, Thengane R and Ghole S 2014 Allelopathic Effects of Cassia tora and Cassia uniflora on Parthenium hysterophorus L. J. Med. Plt. Res. 8 194–196Google Scholar
  30. Yang Y, Lee S, Lee H, Kim M, Lee S and Lee H 2002 A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 3765–3767CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V P Toro
    • 1
  • A D Padhye
    • 2
  • M V Biware
    • 3
  • N A Ghaya
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Prof. Ramkrishna More Arts, Commerce and Science CollegeAkurdi, PuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyAbasaheb Garware CollegePuneIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryAbasaheb Garware CollegePuneIndia
  4. 4.Department of BotanyAbasaheb Garware CollegePuneIndia

Personalised recommendations