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Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 56, Issue 10, pp 6941–6951 | Cite as

The Impact of Chronic Intestinal Inflammation on Brain Disorders: the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

  • Diana SerraEmail author
  • Leonor M. Almeida
  • Teresa C. P. Dinis
Article

Abstract

It has been shown that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that dysbiosis is closely correlated with chronic intestinal inflammation, contributing to the development of chronic intestinal diseases, and also of brain pathologies, including neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders. Given the paramount importance of gut microbiota for the establishment of communication between the gut and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been increasingly explored within the scope of neurosciences. In this review article, we present an overview of key cellular signaling pathways underlying chronic intestinal inflammation and the influence of chronic intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis on brain disorders. This will include the presentation of valuable data from recent preclinical and clinical research. We will also address the importance of probiotics and prebiotics to targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the context of some brain disorders, where they are seen to be promising strategies for ameliorating brain disorders.

Keywords

Chronic intestinal inflammation Brain disorders Microbiota-gut-brain axis Prebiotics and probiotics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Dr. João Pinto in the artwork design.

Funding information

This work was supported by the grant POCI-01-0145-FEDER-029089, funded by FCT (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology), by FEDER funds through the Operational Programme Competitiveness Factors - COMPETE 2020, and by other national funds via FCT, under the project PTDC/SAU-OSM/102907/2008 and strategic project UID/NEU/04539/2013.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNC – Center for Neuroscience and Cell BiologyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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