The Presynaptic Regulation of Dopamine and Norepinephrine Synthesis Has Dissociable Effects on Different Kinds of Cognitive Conflicts
Goal-directed behavior requires the ability to resolve subliminally or consciously induced response conflicts, both of which may benefit from catecholamine-induced increases in gain control. We investigated the effects of presynaptic differences in dopamine and norepinephrine synthesis with the help of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) rs10770141 and the dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) rs1611115, rs6271, and rs1611122 polymorphisms. Conscious and subliminal response conflicts were induced with flanker and prime distractors in (n = 207) healthy young participants while neurophysiological data (EEG) was recorded. The results demonstrated that the increased presynaptic catecholamine synthesis associated with the TH rs10770141 TT genotype improves cognitive control in case of consciously perceived (flanker) conflicts, but not in case of subliminally processed (prime) conflicts. Only norepinephrine seemed to also modulate subliminal conflict processing, as evidenced by better performance of the DBH rs1611122 CC genotype in case of high subliminal conflict load. Better performance was linked to larger conflict-induced modulations in post-response alpha band power arising from parietal and inferior frontal regions, which likely helps to suppress the processing of distracting information. In summary, presynaptic catecholamine synthesis benefits consciously perceived conflicts by improving the suppression of distracting information following a conflict. Subliminal conflicts were modulated via the same mechanism, but only by norepinephrine.
KeywordsConflict DBH Dopamine Norepinephrine Subliminal TH
This study was funded by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) SFB940 B8 to AS and CB.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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