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Steroid-Enriched Fraction of Achyranthes bidentata Protects Amyloid β Peptide 1–40-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation in Rats

  • Li-Wei Lin
  • Fan-Hsuan Tsai
  • Wan-Cheng Lan
  • Yih-Dih Cheng
  • Sheng-Chi LeeEmail author
  • Chi-Rei WuEmail author
Article
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

The roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (AB) is commonly used in the treatment of osteoporosis and dementia in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological reports evidenced that AB possessed anti-osteoarthritis effects. However, there is little literature about the anti-dementia activities of AB. The present study was designed to prepare steroid-enriched fraction of AB (ABS) and investigate whether ABS can protect from cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation against Aβ 1–40-induced Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model in rats. ABS only contained 135.11 ± 4.28 mg of ecdysterone per gram. ABS (50 mg/kg) reversed the dysfunction of exploratory activity and memory function on plus-maze and Morris water maze caused by Aβ 1–40 in rats. ABS (50 mg/kg) also decreased amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangle, neural damage, activated astrocyte, and microglial caused by Aβ 1–40. Furthermore, ABS reversed the phenomenon of neural oxidative damage and neuroinflammation, including the higher levels of MDA and cytokines, and the lower activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH levels caused by Aβ 1–40 in rat cortex and hippocampus. Finally, ABS restored the activation of ERK pathway and decreased NF-κB phosphorylation and translocation altered by Aβ 1–40. ABS alone (50 mg/kg) promoted cognitive function, activated brain antioxidant defense system, and decreased brain TNF-α levels in sham group. Therefore, ABS has the cognition-promoting and antidementia potential. Steroids especial ecdysterone are major active components of AB. The action mechanism is due to decreasing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation through modulating ERK pathway, NF-κB phosphorylation, and translocation in Aβ 1–40-induced AD rat model.

Keywords

Achyranthes bidentata Ecdysterone Aβ 1–40 Oxidative stress Neuroinflammation ERK/NF-κB pathway Hippocampus 

Abbreviation

amyloid β peptide

AB

Achyranthes bidentata

ABS

steroid-enriched fraction of Achyranthes bidentata

AChE

acetylcholinesterase

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

DTNB

5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)

ERK

extracellular signal–regulated kinase

GADPH

glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GFAP

glial fibrillary acidic protein

GPx

glutathione peroxidase

GR

glutathione reductase

GSH

glutathione

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

IBA-1

ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1

IL-1β

interleukin-1β

IL-6

interleukin-6

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

MAPKs

mitogen-activated protein kinases

MDA

malondialdehyde

MWM

Morris water maze

NADPH

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NF-κB

nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NFT

neurofibrillary tangle

p-ERK

phospho-ERK

PD

Parkinson’s disease

p-JNK

phospho-JNK

p-p38

phospho-p38

p-p65

phospho-p65

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SOD

superoxide dismutase

TBA

thiobarbituric acid

TBARS

thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor alpha.

Notes

Funding information

Financial support is from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (NSC 100-2320-B-214 -001, MOST104-2320-B-039-027-MY2, and MOST105-2622-B-039-003-CC2) and ISU-103-01-E-02.

Compliance with ethical standards

The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of I-Shou University approved the experimental protocol (IACUC-ISU-9905), and the animals were cared according to the Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chinese Medicines for Post-BaccalaureateI-Shou UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine ResourcesChina Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of PharmacyChina Medical University HospitalTaichungTaiwan
  4. 4.Pintung Branch, Kaohsiung Veterans General HospitalPitungTaiwan

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