Steroid-Enriched Fraction of Achyranthes bidentata Protects Amyloid β Peptide 1–40-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation in Rats
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The roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (AB) is commonly used in the treatment of osteoporosis and dementia in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological reports evidenced that AB possessed anti-osteoarthritis effects. However, there is little literature about the anti-dementia activities of AB. The present study was designed to prepare steroid-enriched fraction of AB (ABS) and investigate whether ABS can protect from cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation against Aβ 1–40-induced Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model in rats. ABS only contained 135.11 ± 4.28 mg of ecdysterone per gram. ABS (50 mg/kg) reversed the dysfunction of exploratory activity and memory function on plus-maze and Morris water maze caused by Aβ 1–40 in rats. ABS (50 mg/kg) also decreased amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangle, neural damage, activated astrocyte, and microglial caused by Aβ 1–40. Furthermore, ABS reversed the phenomenon of neural oxidative damage and neuroinflammation, including the higher levels of MDA and cytokines, and the lower activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH levels caused by Aβ 1–40 in rat cortex and hippocampus. Finally, ABS restored the activation of ERK pathway and decreased NF-κB phosphorylation and translocation altered by Aβ 1–40. ABS alone (50 mg/kg) promoted cognitive function, activated brain antioxidant defense system, and decreased brain TNF-α levels in sham group. Therefore, ABS has the cognition-promoting and antidementia potential. Steroids especial ecdysterone are major active components of AB. The action mechanism is due to decreasing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation through modulating ERK pathway, NF-κB phosphorylation, and translocation in Aβ 1–40-induced AD rat model.
KeywordsAchyranthes bidentata Ecdysterone Aβ 1–40 Oxidative stress Neuroinflammation ERK/NF-κB pathway Hippocampus
amyloid β peptide
steroid-enriched fraction of Achyranthes bidentata
extracellular signal–regulated kinase
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
glial fibrillary acidic protein
high-performance liquid chromatography
ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1
c-Jun N-terminal kinase
mitogen-activated protein kinases
Morris water maze
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells
reactive oxygen species
thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
tumor necrosis factor alpha.
Financial support is from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (NSC 100-2320-B-214 -001, MOST104-2320-B-039-027-MY2, and MOST105-2622-B-039-003-CC2) and ISU-103-01-E-02.
Compliance with ethical standards
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of I-Shou University approved the experimental protocol (IACUC-ISU-9905), and the animals were cared according to the Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
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