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Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp 4718–4729 | Cite as

Resveratrol Restores Neuronal Tight Junction Proteins Through Correction of Ammonia and Inflammation in CCl4-Induced Cirrhotic Mice

  • Balasubramaniyan VairappanEmail author
  • M. Sundhar
  • B. H. Srinivas
Article

Abstract

Systemic inflammation and ammonia (hyperammonemia) act synergistically in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), the neurobehavioral sequelae of advanced liver disease. In cirrhotic patients, we have recently observed elevated levels of circulating neuronal tight junction (TJ) protein, zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), reflective of a change to blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Moreover, ZO-1 levels positively correlated with hyperammonemia, although any potential relationship remains unclear. Using a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)–induced mouse model of cirrhosis, we primarily looked to explore the relationship between neuronal TJ protein expression and hyperammonemia. Secondarily, we assessed the potential role of a natural antioxidant, resveratrol, on neuronal TJ protein expression and hyperammonemia. Over 12 weeks, male Swiss mice were randomized (n = 8/group) to either naïve controls or induced cirrhosis, using two doses of intraperitoneal CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg/week). After 12 weeks, naïve and cirrhotic mice were randomized to receive either 2 weeks of par-oral resveratrol (10 mg/kg). Plasma samples were analyzed for ammonia, liver biochemistry (ALT, AST, albumin, and bilirubin), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), and brain tissue for brain water content, TJ protein expression (e.g., ZO-1, claudin 5, and occludin), and tissue oxidative stress and inflammatory markers (NF-κB and iNOS) using western blotting. Compared to naïve mice, cirrhosis significantly increased circulating ammonia, brain water, ALT, AST, TNF-α, IL-1β, 4HNE, NF-κB, and iNOS levels, with a concomitant reduction in all TJ proteins (P < 0.05, respectively). In cirrhotic mice, resveratrol treatment ameliorated these changes significantly (P < 0.05, respectively). Our findings provide evidence for a causal association between hyperammonemia and inflammation in cirrhosis linked to TJ protein alterations, BBB disruption, and HE predilection. Moreover, this is the first report of a potential role for resveratrol as a novel therapeutic approach to managing neurological sequelae complicating cirrhosis.

Keywords

Tight junction proteins Blood–brain barrier integrity Neurotoxin Hyperammonemia Systemic inflammatory response Neuroinflammation Resveratrol Antioxidant NF-κB Natural flavonoids 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the 5-year Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship grant (102/IFD/SAN/22/2013-14) awarded to V.B. from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India.

Author Contributions

V.B. designed the study; V.B. and M.S. conducted the study; V.B. and M.S. analyzed the data statistically; V.B. wrote and critically reviewed the manuscript; B.H.S. interpreted the histology and immunohistochemical findings.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest Statement

All the authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Language Certificate

The manuscript underwent proof read and plagiarism check prior submission to the Journal.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The study was reviewed and approved by the JIPMER Scientific Advisory Committee and Institutional Animal Ethics Committee.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Liver Diseases Research Lab, Department of BiochemistryJawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)PondicherryIndia
  2. 2.Department of PathologyJawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)PondicherryIndia

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