Neonatal Hyperoxia Perturbs Neuronal Development in the Cerebellum
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Impaired postnatal brain development of preterm infants often results in neurological deficits. Besides pathologies of the forebrain, maldeveolopment of the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to contribute to psychomotor impairments of many former preterm infants. However, causes are poorly defined. We used a hyperoxia model to define neonatal damage in cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and in Purkinje cells (PCs) known to be essential for interaction with GCPs during development. We exposed newborn rats to 24 h 80% O2 from age P6 to P7 to identify postnatal and long-term damage in cerebellar GCPs at age P7 after hyperoxia and also after recovery in room air thereafter until P11 and P30. We determined proliferation and apoptosis of GCPs and immature neurons by immunohistochemistry, quantified neuronal damage by qPCR and Western blots for neuronal markers, and measured dendrite outgrowth of PCs by CALB1 immunostainings and by Sholl analysis of Golgi stainings. After hyperoxia, proliferation of PAX6+ GCPs was decreased at P7, while DCX + CASP3+ cells were increased at P11. Neuronal markers Pax6, Tbr2, and Prox1 were downregulated at P11 and P30. Neuronal damage was confirmed by reduced NeuN protein expression at P30. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) was significantly decreased at P7 and P11 after hyperoxia and coincided with lower CyclinD2 and Hes1 expression at P7. The granule cell injury was accompanied by hampered PC maturation with delayed dendrite formation and impaired branching. Neonatal injury induced by hyperoxia inhibits PC functioning and impairs granule cell development. As a conclusion, maldevelopment of the cerebellar neurons found in preterm infants could be caused by postnatal oxygen toxicity.
KeywordsCerebellum Granule cells Hyperoxia Preterm infants Purkinje cells Sonic hedgehog
We thank Mrs. Evelyn Strauss and Mrs. Ruth Herrmann for help with paraffin sections and with Western blots.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All animal experiments were performed in accordance with international guidelines for good laboratory practice and were approved by the animal welfare committees of Berlin, Germany.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SCHM3007/2-1, SCHM3007/3-2) (Thomas Schmitz and Till Scheuer), (TA 303/6-1) (Victor Tarabykin), Sonnenfeld Stiftung (Till Scheuer), and the Helga und Alfred Buchwald-Stiftung (Till Scheuer).
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