Bulletin of Materials Science

, 42:268 | Cite as

Two-step fabrication of \(\hbox {MAPbI}_{3}\) perovskite thin films with improved stability

  • Pilik Basumatary
  • Pratima AgarwalEmail author


Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are a part of an emerging technology in photovoltaics (PV), which uses perovskite-structured hybrid compounds as light absorbers such as methylammonium lead iodide (\(\hbox {CH}_{3}\)\(\hbox { NH}_{3}\)\(\hbox { PbI}_{3}\) or \(\hbox {MAPbI}_{3}\)). PSCs with a record certified efficiency of 22.1% are among the fastest advancing PV technology; but PSCs suffer from fast degradation in the presence of moisture. PSCs prepared by a solution process have additional limitation of small device area. In order to improve the stability of perovskite layer, we have used a two-step method for depositing a perovskite layer. First step is the thermal evaporation of lead iodide (\(\hbox {PbI}_{2})\) and second is dip coating (DC) in methylammonium iodide (\(\hbox {CH}_{3}\hbox {NH}_{3}\hbox {I}\) or MAI) solution to prepare a \(\hbox {MAPbI}_{3}\) perovskite. At the same time, we have also used conventional spin coating (SC) for \(\hbox {PbI}_{2}\) films and DC in MAI to obtain \(\hbox {MAPbI}_{3}\) for a comparative study. The gradual formation of \(\hbox {MAPbI}_{3}\) after dipping a \(\hbox {PbI}_{2}\) film into MAI solution can be seen from X-ray diffraction patterns. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the \(\hbox {MAPbI}_{3}\) films are also studied. Better stability of perovskite films was observed using vapour-deposited \(\hbox {PbI}_{2}\) films as compared with spin-coated \(\hbox {PbI}_{2}\) films.


Dip coating \(\hbox {MAPbI}_{3}\) perovskite stability thermal evaporation 



We thank the Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati for XRD, UV–Vis spectroscopy facility and profilometer. We also thank Central Instruments Facility, IIT Guwahati for FESEM and Centre for Nanotechnology, IIT Guwahati for AFM measurements.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for EnergyIndian Institute of TechnologyGuwahatiIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsIndian Institute of TechnologyGuwahatiIndia

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