Gel combustion synthesis of fluorine-doped tin oxide and its characteristics: applying D-optimal factorial design of experiment

  • S Malek
  • S BaghshahiEmail author
  • R Sarraf-Mamoory
  • Ali Nemati


Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nano-powders were synthesized by a gel combustion method. To analyse the effect of processing factors and their interactions and to achieve an equation for nano-powder particle size in terms of code factors, D-optimal factorial design was used. Stannous chloride penta-hydride, ammonium fluoride and citric acid were used to synthesize the FTO nano-powders. The structure, morphology and composition of the synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results revealed the formation of homogenous FTO nano-powders with an average particle size of 20 nm and equiaxed morphology in the concentration of precursor 0.2, citric acid to precursor molar ratio of 1 and pH of 0.5. The average particle size increased as the concentration of the precursor, citric acid to precursor molar ratio and pH increased from 0.2 to 1, 1 to 3 and 0.5 to 3, respectively. Citric acid to precursor molar ratio, concentration of the precursor and the pH had the most significant effect on the synthesis of the FTO nano-powders, respectively.


Gel combustion FTO D-optimal factorial design solar cells 


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S Malek
    • 1
  • S Baghshahi
    • 2
    Email author
  • R Sarraf-Mamoory
    • 3
  • Ali Nemati
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Materials Engineering, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringImam Khomeini International UniversityQazvinIran
  3. 3.Department of Materials EngineeringTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

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