Advertisement

Medical Oncology

, 36:40 | Cite as

Neck management in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: where do we stand?

  • Guillaume KlausnerEmail author
  • Idriss Troussier
  • Eivind Blais
  • Florent Carsuzaa
  • Thomas Zilli
  • Raymond Miralbell
  • Francesca Caparrotti
  • Juliette Thariat
Review Article
  • 80 Downloads

Abstract

Head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) have a significant lymph node tropism. This varies considerably depending on the primary tumor site and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) status of the disease. The best therapeutic option, between up-front lymph node dissection and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) +/− followed by lymph node dissection in case of persistent lymphadenopathy or regional relapse, remains unclear. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pros and cons related to the different approaches of the neck management in HNSCC. A narrative review of the management of the cervical lymph nodes was undertaken. Searches of PubMed database were performed using the terms ‘neck management’ OR ‘cervical lymphadenopathies’ AND ‘head and neck neoplasms’. Recent advances in imaging, pathological analysis, surgery and radiotherapy let to personalize the type of lymph node dissection and, the volumes of radiation therapy. Excluding inoperable patients and unresectable diseases, N3 lymphadenopathies, as well as bulky N2 stages, specifically HPV− or necrotic nodes, would be in favor of an up-front surgical approach, while HPV+ diseases, and lymphadenopathies of unknown primary would support CRT first. However, efficacy of such strategies is challenged by a significant morbidity in the medium and long terms. In the absence of higher level of evidence, the decision-making tools for the neck dissection before or after the CRT are based on the Mehanna’s trial and retrospective studies with significant biases. Consequently, the approaches and the ensuing outcomes remain not homogenous depending on the centers’ experience, in the context of limited data, especially for N2–3 HPV− HNSCC.

Keywords

Head and neck neoplasms Neck dissection Radiotherapy Disease management Lymphadenopathy Combined modality therapy 

Notes

Funding

None.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

No object.

References

  1. 1.
    Chung E-J, Kim G-W, Cho B-K, Park HS, Rho Y-S. Pattern of lymph node metastasis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and indications for level VI lymph node dissection: Level VI lymph node metastasis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2016;38:E1969–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bataini JP, Bernier J, Jaulerry C, Brunin F, Pontvert D, Lave C. Impact of neck node radio responsiveness on the regional control probability in patients with oropharynx and pharyngolarynx cancers managed by definitive radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1987;13:817–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pignon JP, Bourhis J, Domenge C, Designé L. Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. MACH-NC Collaborative Group. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy on head and neck cancer. Lancet Lond Engl. 2000;355:949–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lango MN, Myers JN, Garden AS. Controversies in surgical management of the node-positive neck after chemoradiation. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2009;19:24–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mehanna H, Wong W-L, McConkey CC, Rahman JK, Robinson M, Hartley AGJ, et al. PET–CT surveillance versus neck dissection in advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:1444–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang SH, O’Sullivan B, Xu W, Zhao H, Chen D, Ringash J, et al. Temporal nodal regression and regional control after primary radiation therapy for N2–N3 head-and-neck cancer stratified by HPV status. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;87:1078–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ang KK, Harris J, Wheeler R, Weber R, Rosenthal DI, Nguyen-Tân PF, et al. Human papillomavirus and survival of patients with oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:24–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kharytaniuk N, Molony P, Boyle S, O’Leary G, Werner R, Heffron C, et al. Association of extracapsular spread with survival according to human papillomavirus status in oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma of unknown primary site. JAMA Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg. 2016;142:683–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maxwell JH, Ferris RL, Gooding W, Cunningham D, Mehta V, Kim S, et al. Extracapsular spread in head and neck carcinoma: impact of site and human papillomavirus status. Cancer. 2013;119:3302–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bernier J, Cooper JS, Pajak TF, van Glabbeke M, Bourhis J, Forastiere A, et al. Defining risk levels in locally advanced head and neck cancers: a comparative analysis of concurrent postoperative radiation plus chemotherapy trials of the EORTC (#22931) and RTOG (# 9501). Head Neck. 2005;27:843–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chai RL, Rath TJ, Johnson JT, Ferris RL, Kubicek GJ, Duvvuri U, et al. Accuracy of computed tomography in the prediction of extracapsular spread of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. JAMA Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg. 2013;139:1187–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ghadjar P, Schreiber-Facklam H, Gräter R, Evers C, Simcock M, Geretschläger A, et al. Quantitative analysis of extracapsular extension of metastatic lymph nodes and its significance in radiotherapy planning in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76:1127–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martin H, Del Valle B, Ehrlich H, Cahan WG. Neck dissection. Cancer. 1951;4:441–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Robbins KT, Clayman G, Levine PA, Medina J, Sessions R, Shaha A, et al. Neck dissection classification update: revisions proposed by the American Head and Neck Society and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:751–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hamoir M, Silver CE, Schmitz S, Takes RP, Rinaldo A, Rodrigo JP, et al. Radical neck dissection: is it still indicated? Eur Arch Oto–Rhino-Laryngol Off J Eur Fed Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Soc EUFOS Affil Ger Soc Oto-Rhino-Laryngol-Head Neck Surg. 2013;270:1–4.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ferlito A, Rinaldo A. Is radical neck dissection a current option for neck disease? Laryngoscope. 2008;118:1717–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moya-Plana A, Aupérin A, Guerlain J, Gorphe P, Casiraghi O, Mamelle G, et al. Sentinel node biopsy in early oral squamous cell carcinomas: long-term follow-up and nodal failure analysis. Oral Oncol. 2018;82:187–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Divi V, Chen MM, Nussenbaum B, Rhoads KF, Sirjani DB, Holsinger FC, et al. Lymph node count from neck dissection predicts mortality in head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:3892–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Al-Sarraf M, LeBlanc M, Giri PG, Fu KK, Cooper J, Vuong T, et al. Chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal cancer: phase III randomized intergroup study 0099. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1998;16:1310–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Calais G, Alfonsi M, Bardet E, Sire C, Germain T, Bergerot P, et al. Randomized trial of radiation therapy versus concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:2081–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yao M, Hoffman HT, Chang K, Funk GF, Smith RB, Tan H, et al. Is planned neck dissection necessary for head and neck cancer after intensity-modulated radiotherapy? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;68:707–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grégoire V, Ang K, Budach W, Grau C, Hamoir M, Langendijk JA, et al. Delineation of the neck node levels for head and neck tumors: a 2013 update. DAHANCA, EORTC, HKNPCSG, NCIC CTG, NCRI, RTOG, TROG consensus guidelines. Radiother Oncol J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol. 2014;110:172–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lapeyre M, Toledano I, Bourry N, Bailly C, Cachin F. Délinéation des volumes cibles des cancers des voies aérodigestives supérieures en radiothérapie conformationnelle avec modulation d’intensité. Cancer/Radiothér. 2011;15:466–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bataini JP, Bernier J, Brugere J, Jaulerry C, Picco C, Brunin F. Natural history of neck disease in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx and pharyngolarynx. Radiother Oncol J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol. 1985;3:245–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thariat J, Ang KK, Allen PK, Ahamad A, Williams MD, Myers JN, et al. Prediction of neck dissection requirement after definitive radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:e367–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rivière D, Mancini J, Santini L, Giovanni A, Dessi P, Fakhry N. Lymph-node metastasis following total laryngectomy and total pharyngolaryngectomy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: frequency, distribution and risk factors. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2018;135:163–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grabenbauer GG, Rödel C, Ernst-Stecken A, Brunner T, Hornung J, Kittel K, et al. Neck dissection following radiochemotherapy of advanced head and neck cancer—for selected cases only? Radiother Oncol J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol. 2003;66:57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kjems J, Gothelf AB, Håkansson K, Specht L, Kristensen CA, Friborg J. Elective nodal irradiation and patterns of failure in head and neck cancer after primary radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol. 2016;94:775–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    van den Bosch S, Dijkema T, Verhoef LCG, Zwijnenburg EM, Janssens GO, Kaanders JHAM. Patterns of recurrence in electively irradiated lymph node regions after definitive accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol. 2016;94:766–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schmitz S, Machiels J-P, Weynand B, Gregoire V, Hamoir M. Results of selective neck dissection in the primary management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur Arch Oto–Rhino-Laryngol Off J Eur Fed Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Soc EUFOS Affil Ger Soc Oto-Rhino-Laryngol-Head Neck Surg. 2009;266:437–43.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    Horiot JC, Le Fur R, N’Guyen T, Chenal C, Schraub S, Alfonsi S, et al. Hyperfractionation versus conventional fractionation in oropharyngeal carcinoma: final analysis of a randomized trial of the EORTC Cooperative Group of Radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol. 1992;25:231–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Clark J, Li W, Smith G, Shannon K, Clifford A, McNeil E, et al. Outcome of treatment for advanced cervical metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2005;27:87–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Adelstein DJ, Lavertu P, Saxton JP, Secic M, Wood BG, Wanamaker JR, et al. Mature results of a phase III randomized trial comparing concurrent chemoradiotherapy with radiation therapy alone in patients with stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer. 2000;88:876–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vergeer MR, Doornaert P, Leemans CR, Buter J, Slotman BJ, Langendijk JA. Control of nodal metastases in squamous cell head and neck cancer treated by radiation therapy or chemoradiation. Radiother Oncol J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol. 2006;79:39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li W-F, Sun Y, Mao Y-P, Chen L, Chen Y-Y, Chen M, et al. Proposed lymph node staging system using the International Consensus Guidelines for lymph node levels is predictive for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients from endemic areas treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;86:249–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chua DT, Sham JS, Kwong DL, Choy DT, Leong L, Chan FL. Evaluation of cervical nodal necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by computed tomography: incidence and prognostic significance. Head Neck. 1997;19:266–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Peters LJ, Weber RS, Morrison WH, Byers RM, Garden AS, Goepfert H. Neck surgery in patients with primary oropharyngeal cancer treated by radiotherapy. Head Neck. 1996;18:552–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Steinkamp HJ, Hosten N, Richter C, Schedel H, Felix R. Enlarged cervical lymph nodes at helical CT. Radiology. 1994;191:795–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    van den Brekel MW. Lymph node metastases: CT and MRI. Eur J Radiol. 2000;33:230–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schwartz DL, Rajendran J, Yueh B, Coltrera MD, Leblanc M, Eary J, et al. FDG-PET prediction of head and neck squamous cell cancer outcomes. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:1361–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yao M, Buatti JM, Dornfeld KJ, Graham MM, Smith RB, Funk GF, et al. Can post-RT FDG PET accurately predict the pathologic status in neck dissection after radiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer? In regard to Rogers et al. (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004;58:694–697). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61:306–7; author reply 307.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Greven KM, Williams DW, Browne JD, McGuirt WF, White DR, D’Agostino RB. Radiographic complete response on post treatment CT imaging eliminates the need for adjuvant neck dissection after treatment for node positive head and neck cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 2008;31:169–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sjövall J, Bitzén U, Kjellén E, Nilsson P, Wahlberg P, Brun E. Qualitative interpretation of PET scans using a Likert scale to assess neck node response to radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43:609–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nayak JV, Walvekar RR, Andrade RS, Daamen N, Lai SY, Argiris A, et al. Deferring planned neck dissection following chemoradiation for stage IV head and neck cancer: the utility of PET–CT. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:2129–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mehanna H, McConkey CC, Rahman JK, Wong W-L, Smith AF, Nutting C, et al. PET-NECK: a multicentre randomised Phase III non-inferiority trial comparing a positron emission tomography–computerised tomography-guided watch-and-wait policy with planned neck dissection in the management of locally advanced (N2/N3) nodal metastases in patients with squamous cell head and neck cancer. Health Technol Assess Winch Engl. 2017;21:1–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith AF, Hall PS, Hulme CT, Dunn JA, McConkey CC, Rahman JK, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of PET–CT-guided management for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Eur J Cancer Oxf Engl. 1990;2017(85):6–14.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hoffmann TK, Schuler PJ, Laban S, Grässlin R, Beer M, Beer AJ, et al. Response evaluation in head and neck oncology: definition and prediction. ORL J Oto–Rhino-Laryngol Relat Spec. 2017;79:14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schmitz S, Van Maanen A, Rousseaux L, Andry G, Temam S, Dequanter D, et al. The role of PET for predicting nodal response in locally advanced (LA) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT): results of a prospective multicenter trial. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35:6013–6013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    King AD, Yu K-H, Mo FKF, Law BKH, Yuen TWC, Bhatia KS, et al. Cervical nodal metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: MRI criteria for treatment assessment. Head Neck. 2016;38(Suppl 1):E1598–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Quon H, Brizel DM. Predictive and prognostic role of functional imaging of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2012;22:220–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schouten CS, de Graaf P, Alberts FM, Hoekstra OS, Comans EFI, Bloemena E, et al. Response evaluation after chemoradiotherapy for advanced nodal disease in head and neck cancer using diffusion-weighted MRI and 18F-FDG-PET–CT. Oral Oncol. 2015;51:541–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hauser T, Essig M, Jensen A, Laun FB, Münter M, Maier-Hein KH, et al. Prediction of treatment response in head and neck carcinomas using IVIM-DWI: evaluation of lymph node metastasis. Eur J Radiol. 2014;83:783–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Noij DP, Pouwels PJW, Ljumanovic R, Knol DL, Doornaert P, de Bree R, et al. Predictive value of diffusion-weighted imaging without and with including contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in image analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Radiol. 2015;84:108–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nakamoto Y, Tamai K, Saga T, Higashi T, Hara T, Suga T, et al. Clinical value of image fusion from MR and PET in patients with head and neck cancer. Mol Imaging Biol MIB Off Publ Acad Mol Imaging. 2009;11:46–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Platzek I, Beuthien-Baumann B, Schneider M, Gudziol V, Langner J, Schramm G, et al. PET/MRI in head and neck cancer: initial experience. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013;40:6–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cantrell SC, Peck BW, Li G, Wei Q, Sturgis EM, Ginsberg LE. Differences in imaging characteristics of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancers: a blinded matched-pair analysis. Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:2005–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Boscolo-Rizzo P, Schroeder L, Romeo S, Pawlita M. The prevalence of human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary site metastatic to neck lymph nodes: a systematic review. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2015;32:835–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mermod M, Tolstonog G, Simon C, Monnier Y. Extracapsular spread in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Oncol. 2016;62:60–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Liu JT, Kann BH, De B, Buckstein M, Bakst RL, Genden EM, et al. Prognostic value of radiographic extracapsular extension in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers. Oral Oncol. 2016;52:52–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mak D, Hicks RJ, Rischin D, Solomon B, Peters L, Bressel M, et al. Treatment response in the neck: p16+ versus p16− oropharyngeal cancer. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2013;57:364–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lee JY, Garcia-Murillas I, Cutts RJ, De Castro DG, Grove L, Hurley T, et al. Predicting response to radical (chemo)radiotherapy with circulating HPV DNA in locally advanced head and neck squamous carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:876–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Prades JM, Timoshenko AP, Schmitt TH, Delolme MP, Francoz M, Martin C, et al. Planned neck dissection before combined chemoradiation for pyriform sinus carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh). 2008;128:324–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Strasser MD, Gleich LL, Miller MA, Saavedra HI, Gluckman JL. Management implications of evaluating the N2 and N3 neck after organ preservation therapy. Laryngoscope. 1999;109:1776–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wolf GT, Fisher SG. Effectiveness of salvage neck dissection for advanced regional metastases when induction chemotherapy and radiation are used for organ preservation. Laryngoscope. 1992;102:934–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brizel DM, Prosnitz RG, Hunter S, Fisher SR, Clough RL, Downey MA, et al. Necessity for adjuvant neck dissection in setting of concurrent chemoradiation for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;58:1418–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Byers RM, Clayman GL, Guillamondequi OM, Peters LJ, Goepfert H. Resection of advanced cervical metastasis prior to definitive radiotherapy for primary squamous carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. Head Neck. 1992;14:133–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Paximadis PA, Christensen ME, Dyson G, Kamdar DP, Sukari A, Lin H-S, et al. Up-front neck dissection followed by concurrent chemoradiation in patients with regionally advanced head and neck cancer. Head Neck. 2012;34:1798–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cupino A, Axelrod R, Anne PR, Sidhu K, Lavarino J, Kung B, et al. Neck dissection followed by chemoradiotherapy for stage IV (N+) oropharynx cancer. Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg Off J Am Acad Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:416–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    D’cruz AK, Pantvaidya GH, Agarwal JP, Chaukar DA, Pathak KA, Deshpande MS, et al. Split therapy: planned neck dissection followed by definitive radiotherapy for a T1, T2 pharyngolaryngeal primary cancer with operable N2, N3 nodal metastases—a prospective study. J Surg Oncol. 2006;93:56–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shenoy AM, Shiva Kumar T, Prashanth V, Chavan P, Halkud R, Jacob L, et al. Neck dissection followed by definitive radiotherapy for small upper aerodigestive tract squamous cell carcinoma, with advanced neck disease: an alternative treatment strategy. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;65:48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Verschuur HP, Keus RB, Hilgers FJ, Balm AJ, Gregor RT. Preservation of function by radiotherapy of small primary carcinomas preceded by neck dissection for extensive nodal metastases of the head and neck. Head Neck. 1996;18:277–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Graboyes EM, Garrett-Mayer E, Ellis MA, Sharma AK, Wahlquist AE, Lentsch EJ, et al. Effect of time to initiation of postoperative radiation therapy on survival in surgically managed head and neck cancer. Cancer. 2017;123:4841–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Modesto A, Sarini J, Benlyazid A, Ouali M, Laprie A, Graff P, et al. Place du curage ganglionnaire avant radiothérapie exclusive dans la prise en charge des carcinomes épidermoïdes localement évolués des voies aérodigestives supérieures. Cancer/Radiothér. 2016;20:18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rengan R, Pfister DG, Lee NY, Kraus DH, Shah JP, Shaha AR, et al. Long-term neck control rates after complete response to chemoradiation in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 2008;31:465–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Frank DK, Hu KS, Culliney BE, Persky MS, Nussbaum M, Schantz SP, et al. Planned neck dissection after concomitant radiochemotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:1015–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gane EM, McPhail SM, Hatton AL, Panizza BJ, O’Leary SP. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients treated with neck dissection for head and neck cancer. Eur Arch Oto–Rhino-Laryngol Off J Eur Fed Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Soc EUFOS Affil Ger Soc Oto-Rhino-Laryngol-Head Neck Surg. 2017;274:4183–93.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brown KM, Lango M, Ridge JA. The role of neck dissection in the combined modality therapy setting. Semin Oncol. 2008;35:229–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Al-Mamgani A, Meeuwis CA, van Rooij PH, Mehilal R, Basdew H, Sewnaik A, et al. Node-positive hypopharyngeal cancer treated by (chemo)radiotherapy: impact of up-front neck dissection on outcome, toxicity, and quality of life. Head Neck. 2012;35:1278–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Allal AS, Dulguerov P, Bieri S, Lehmann W, Kurtz JM. A conservation approach to pharyngeal carcinoma with advanced neck disease: optimizing neck management. Head Neck. 1999;21:217–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Early pharyngolaryngeal carcinomas with palpable nodes. French Head and Neck Study Group (GETTEC). Am J Surg. 1991;162:377–80.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Elicin O, Albrecht T, Haynes AG, Bojaxhiu B, Nisa L, Caversaccio M, et al. Outcomes in advanced head and neck cancer treated with up-front neck dissection prior to (chemo)radiotherapy. Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg Off J Am Acad Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg. 2016;154:300–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Liu X-K, Li Q, Zhang Q, Su Y, Shi Y-X, Li H, et al. Planned neck dissection before combined chemoradiation in organ preservation protocol for N2–N3 of supraglottic or hypopharyngeal carcinoma. ORL J Oto–Rhino-Laryngol Relat Spec. 2012;74:64–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nevens D, Duprez F, Bonte K, Deron P, Huvenne W, Laenen A, et al. Upfront vs. no upfront neck dissection in primary head and neck cancer radio(chemo)therapy: tumor control and late toxicity. Radiother Oncol J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol. 2017;124:220–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Elicin O, Nisa L, Dal Pra A, Bojaxhiu B, Caversaccio M, Schmücking M, et al. Up-front neck dissection followed by definitive (chemo)-radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: rationale, complications, toxicity rates, and oncological outcomes—a systematic review. Radiother Oncol. 2016;119:185–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ohara K, Tatsuzaki H, Kurosaki Y, Fuji H, Myo-Min, Itai Y, et al. Metastatic lymph-node clearance from head and neck epidermoid carcinomas following radiotherapy. Acta Oncol. 1999;38:261–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nguyen-Tan PF, Zhang Q, Ang KK, Weber RS, Rosenthal DI, Soulieres D, et al. Randomized Phase III trial to test accelerated versus standard fractionation in combination with concurrent cisplatin for head and neck carcinomas in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0129 Trial: long-term report of efficacy and toxicity. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:3858–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Johnson CR, Silverman LN, Clay LB, Schmidt-Ullrich R. Radiotherapeutic management of bulky cervical lymphadenopathy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: is postradiotherapy neck dissection necessary? Radiat Oncol Investig. 1998;6:52–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vedrine P-O, Thariat J, Hitier M, Janot F, Kaminsky M-C, Makeieff M, et al. Need for neck dissection after radiochemotherapy? A study of the French GETTEC Group. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:1775–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Adams G, Porceddu SV, Pryor DI, Panizza B, Foote M, Rowan A, et al. Outcomes after primary chemoradiotherapy for N3 (> 6 cm) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma after an FDG-PET-guided neck management policy. Head Neck. 2014;36:1200–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Malone J, Robbins KT. Neck dissection after chemoradiation for carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: indications and complications. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;18:89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Machtay M, Moughan J, Trotti A, Garden AS, Weber RS, Cooper JS, et al. Factors associated with severe late toxicity after concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer: an RTOG analysis. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3582–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Peters TTA, van Dijk BAC, Roodenburg JLN, van der Laan BFAM, Halmos GB. Relation between age, comorbidity, and complications in patients undergoing major surgery for head and neck cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21:963–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    van den Bovenkamp K, Noordhuis MG, Oosting SF, van der Laan BFAM, Roodenburg JL, Bijl HP, et al. Clinical outcome of salvage neck dissections in head and neck cancer in relation to initial treatment, extent of surgery and patient factors. Clin Otolaryngol. 2017;42:693–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Robbins KT, Wong FS, Kumar P, Hartsell WF, Vieira F, Mullins B, et al. Efficacy of targeted chemoradiation and planned selective neck dissection to control bulky nodal disease in advanced head and neck cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:670–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hamoir M, Ferlito A, Schmitz S, Hanin F-X, Thariat J, Weynand B, et al. The role of neck dissection in the setting of chemoradiation therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with advanced neck disease. Oral Oncol. 2012;48:203–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Christopoulos A, Nguyen-Tan PF, Tabet J-C, Fortin B, Souliàres D, Charpentier D, et al. Neck dissection following concurrent chemoradiation for advanced head and neck carcinoma: pathologic findings and complications. J Otolaryngol-Head Neck Surg J Oto–Rhino-Laryngol Chir Cerv.-Fac. 2008;37:452–6.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chung E-J, Lee S-H, Baek S-H, Bae W-J, Chang Y-J, Rho Y-S. Clinical outcome and prognostic factors after salvage surgery for isolated regional squamous cell carcinoma recurrences. Head Neck. 2015;37:1612–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Robbins KT, Ferlito A, Shah JP, Hamoir M, Takes RP, Strojan P, et al. The evolving role of selective neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur Arch Oto–Rhino-Laryngol Off J Eur Fed Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Soc EUFOS Affil Ger Soc Oto-Rhino-Laryngol-Head Neck Surg. 2013;270:1195–202.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Troussier I, Klausner G, Blais E, Giraud P, Lahmi L, Pflumio C, et al. Advances in the management of cervical lymphadenopathies of unknown primary with intensity modulated radiotherapy: doses and target volumes. Cancer Radiother J Soc Fr Radiother Oncol. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canrad.2017.10.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Troussier I, Klausner G, Morinière S, Blais E, Faivre J-C, Champion A, et al. Advances in the management of cervical lymphadenopathies of unknown primary: advances in diagnostic imaging and surgical modalities and new international staging system. Bull Cancer (Paris). 2018;105:181–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Amsbaugh MJ, Yusuf M, Gaskins J, Silverman C, Potts K, Bumpous J, et al. Neck dissection for unknown cancer of the head and neck in the era of chemoradiation. Am J Otolaryngol. 2017;38:588–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) La Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles-FoixSorbonne UniversityParisFrance
  2. 2.Radiation Oncology DepartmentHôpitaux Universitaires de Genève (HUG)Geneva 14Switzerland
  3. 3.Head and Neck Surgery DepartmentCentre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de PoitiersPoitiersFrance
  4. 4.Radiation Oncology Department, François Baclesse Center/ARCHADENormandy UniversityCaenFrance

Personalised recommendations