Age Matters: an Atypical Association Between Polymorphism of MTHFR and Clinical Phenotypes in Children with Schizophrenia
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may increase the risk of schizophrenia in adults and aggravate related symptoms, while it is unknown whether similar risk applies in children with schizophrenia. While average onset age of schizophrenia is between the ages of 15 and 25, there are no studies on the relationship between MTHFR polymorphism and childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). Here, we aimed to explore the risk of MTHFR polymorphism in children and examine the effects of MTHFR polymorphism on disease onset and clinical features in the COS patients. Pediatric patients with schizophrenia (n = 97) as well as age- and sex-matched controls (n = 92) were enrolled from the pediatric department. We evaluated clinical features including disease onset age, duration, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). The three major MTHFR genotypes (G1793A, C677T, and A1298C) were examined in all subjects and the association between MTHFR polymorphism and clinical features of schizophrenia was analyzed. The G1793A polymorphism and the total number of MTHFR risk alleles were associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in children. The A1298C polymorphism contributed to prolong the duration time of schizophrenia. Inconsistent with expectations, no significant associations were found between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and schizophrenia in children. Both G1793A and multi-site MTHFR polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in children, while A1298C polymorphism contributes to prolonged disease duration. While C677T is known to play major roles in the risk of adult schizophrenia, our finding for the first time suggests an age-specific association between MTHFR polymorphisms and schizophrenia.
KeywordsMethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase Polymorphism Schizophrenia Children Clinical symptom Disease duration
We thank for all patients and healthy subjects for their participation in the study, and Drs. Zuoli Sun, Zhengrong Zhang, Yi He, Christine, and clinical researchers from Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University for their support and help.
This work was financially supported by the Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission under grant (Z161100000216151) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant (81671248).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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