Smad Anchor for Receptor Activation and Phospho-Smad3 Were Upregulated in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
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Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is an important regulator of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling by recruiting Smad2/3 to TGF-β receptors. We recently demonstrated that the expressions of SARA and level of downstream phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) were upregulated in the brain in the epileptic rat model, but were never examined in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this study, we examined the expressions of SARA and level of p-Smad3 in brain tissues of TLE patients using immunohistochemistry and western blot to demonstrate that SARA activation in neurons is sufficient to facilitate TGF- β pathway in patients to regulate epilepsy. We found that the expressions of SARA and level of p-Smad3 were significantly upregulated in neurons of the temporal cortex of TLE patients compared to controls. Moreover, SARA and p-Smad3 were strongly stained in the cytoplasm in the temporal cortex of TLE patients. Our results indicate that upregulation of SARA and p-Smad3 in cortex neurons might be involved in the development of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.
KeywordsSARA Seizure Smad3 TGF-β Temporal lobe epilepsy Patient
We sincerely appreciate all of the patients and their families for their participation in this study.
This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81671286 and 81871019), and Scientific and Technological Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission (KJ1702011).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures were carried out in accordance with the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans, and were approved by the National Institutes of Health and the Committee on Human Research at the Chongqing Medical University. The formal consents were obtained from the patients or their legal next of kin for the use of any data and tissues for research studies.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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