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Ginsenoside Compound K Regulates Amyloid β via the Nrf2/Keap1 Signaling Pathway in Mice with Scopolamine Hydrobromide-Induced Memory Impairments

  • Qing Yang
  • Jianan Lin
  • Huiyuan Zhang
  • Yingna Liu
  • Mo Kan
  • Zhiru Xiu
  • Xijun Chen
  • Xingcheng Lan
  • Xiaohua Li
  • Xiaozheng Shi
  • Na Li
  • Xiaobo Qu
Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of ginsenoside compound K (CK) in a model of scopolamine hydrobromide-induced, memory-impaired mice. The role of CK in the regulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and its capacity to activate the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway were also studied due to their translational relevance to Alzheimer’s disease. The Morris water maze was used to assess spatial memory functions. Levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde in brain tissues were tested. Cell morphology was detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to determine expression levels of Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway-related factors and Aβ. Ginsenoside CK was found to enhance memory function, normalize neuronal morphology, decrease neuronal apoptosis, increase superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels, reduce malondialdehyde levels, inhibit Aβ expression, and activate the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway in scopolamine-exposed animals. Based on these results, we conclude that CK may improve memory function in scopolamine-injured mice by regulating Aβ aggregation and promoting the transduction of the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway, thereby reducing oxidative damage to neurons and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. This study suggests that CK may serve as a future preventative agent or treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords

Ginsenoside compound K Scopolamine Amyloid β Alzheimer’s disease Spatial memory 

Notes

Funding Information

The work was supported by the Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, 2018 (No. 81704001); “Shi San Wu” Science and Technology Project, Ministry of Education, Jilin Province, 2017 (No. JJKH20170713KJ); and Funded Project for Natural Science, Department of Science and Technology, Jilin Province, 2016 (No. 20160101229JC).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All experiments were approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine (approval number, 20180095).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Yang
    • 1
  • Jianan Lin
    • 1
  • Huiyuan Zhang
    • 1
  • Yingna Liu
    • 1
  • Mo Kan
    • 1
  • Zhiru Xiu
    • 1
  • Xijun Chen
    • 1
  • Xingcheng Lan
    • 1
  • Xiaohua Li
    • 1
  • Xiaozheng Shi
    • 1
  • Na Li
    • 1
  • Xiaobo Qu
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of BioMacromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Jilin Ginseng AcademyChangchun University of Chinese MedicineChangchunChina

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