Role of DIDO1 in Progression of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard
  • Pegah Naeimi Khorasanizadeh
  • Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
  • Afsaneh Javdani Mallak
  • Meysam MoghbeliEmail author
Original Research



Apoptosis is one of the main involved processes during development and organogenesis and its aberration may result in tumorigenesis. In the present study, due to the role of death inducer-obliterator 1 (DIDO1) in activation of caspases 9 and 3 during the apoptosis process, the role of DIDO1 as the shortest splicing variant of the DIDO gene was assessed for the first time in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients.


DIDO1 mRNA expression in tumor tissues from 50 ESCC patients was compared to their corresponding margin normal tissues using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).


Nine out of 50 (18%) and 13 out of 50 (26%) cases had DIDO1 under- and overexpression, respectively. There was a significant correlation between DIDO1 mRNA expression and tumor depth of invasion (p = 0.050). Also, there was a significant correlation between age of patients and levels of DIDO1 mRNA expression (p = 0.039).


This study is the first report that assessed the DIDO1 expression in ESCC patients and revealed its probable role in the early steps of tumor progression and metastasis. Therefore, DIDO1 can be suggested as a marker for the primary ESCCs.


ESCC Apoptosis Metastasis Real-time PCR Tumor 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard
    • 1
  • Pegah Naeimi Khorasanizadeh
    • 2
  • Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
    • 2
  • Afsaneh Javdani Mallak
    • 2
  • Meysam Moghbeli
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiologyDamghan Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityDamghanIran
  2. 2.Immunology Research CenterMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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