Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 947–950 | Cite as

Alpha-fetoprotein Secreting Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Liver: a Case Report and Literature Review

  • Yakup BozkayaEmail author
  • U. Aydın
  • A. Avcı
  • D. Tuncer
  • E. Yılmaz
Case Report


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) occur in organs and tissues that contain peptides and amine-producing cells with different hormonal profiles depending on the region in which they are originated [1, 2]. NETs mostly occur in the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary system, and they are mostly seen in rectum, jejunum/ileum, and pancreas in gastrointestinal system [3]. Hepatic neuroendocrine tumors are rarely seen, and low-grade carcinoid tumors constitute the majority of cases [4]. On the other hand, hepatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (hNECs) are high-grade tumors that are rarely observed [5].

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein secreted by the liver and fetal yolk sac during the gestational period [6]. Except for malign diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and yolk sac tumors, AFP level increases during benign diseases such as chronic liver disease, viral hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Despite published reports showing increased AFP levels in patients with NET,...


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yakup Bozkaya
    • 1
    Email author
  • U. Aydın
    • 2
  • A. Avcı
    • 3
  • D. Tuncer
    • 4
  • E. Yılmaz
    • 5
  1. 1.Edirne State HospitalClinic of Medical OncologyEdirneTurkey
  2. 2.Department of General Surgery, Florence Nightingale HospitalBilim UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, Ataturk Training and Research HospitalKatip Çelebi UniversityİzmirTurkey
  4. 4.Edirne State HospitalClinic of GastroenterologyEdirneTurkey
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyTrakya University Faculty of MedicineEdirneTurkey

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