Association of High Expression Levels of SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 in Gastric Cancer Tumor Tissues with Progression and Poor Prognosis

  • Gholam Basati
  • Hadiseh Mohammadpour
  • Amirnader Emami RazaviEmail author
Original Research



Expression of the essential regulator genes, SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4, so-called as stemness factors, is prerequisite for the tumorigenic capability of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their potential role in the formation and progression of various human cancers.


In this study, the expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 were quantified by a qRT-PCR method in 100 gastric cancer tumor tissues vs the paired adjacent normal tissues. Then, the relationship between the expression of the three genes in gastric cancer tumor tissues and the clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival of patients was investigated.


Higher expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 were found in gastric cancer tumor tissues compared with those in paired adjacent normal tissues (P = 0.0001). Overexpression of the mentioned genes in gastric cancer tumor tissues was resolved to be significantly associated with tumor size (P < 0.05), TNM stage (P = 0.001), tumor grade (P < 0.01), and shortened overall survival time (P = 0.0001).


These findings indicted that the stemness factors SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 are significantly overexpressed in gastric cancer and may serve as potential biomarkers of gastric cancer progression and prognosis.


Gastric cancer Prognosis Stemness factors 


Authors’ Contributions

GB and AER conceived and designed the study and wrote the manuscript. HM was responsible for data collection. AER and HM performed the study and contributed the reagents/materials/analysis tools. GB analyzed the data. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding Information

This work was supported by Ilam University of Medical Sciences (942020/158) and the Cancer Institute of Iran.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biotechnology and Medicinal Plants Research CenterIlam University of Medical SciencesIlamIran
  2. 2.Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of IranTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Iran National Tumor Bank, Cancer Biology Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran.Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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