Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 256–259 | Cite as

Angiogenesis, Invasion, and Metastasis Characteristics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Şirin Yüksel
  • Cemaliye Boylu Akyerli
  • M. Cengiz YakıcıerEmail author
Review Article


Starting with the chronic inflammation and cirrhosis, dysplastic nodules of the liver usually progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma through a series of complex multistep processes known as hepatocarcinogenesis. Even though the details of hepatocarcinogenesis still remain to be elucidated, previous studies suggest that two distinct mechanisms might be responsible in the formation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocarcinogenesis can be triggered by either exposing the liver to various chronic injuries (HBV, HCV, alcohol, aflatoxin, metabolic disease such as obesity, type II diabetes, and insulin resistance) or the presence of somatic mutations and/or genomic alterations in one or more oncogenes or tumor suppressors [1, 2]. Both of these mechanisms seem to disrupt various specific signaling pathways playing roles in various cancer hallmarks such as angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, cell invasion, and inflammation [


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Şirin Yüksel
    • 1
  • Cemaliye Boylu Akyerli
    • 2
  • M. Cengiz Yakıcıer
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Arts and SciencesAcıbadem Mehmet Ali Aydınlar UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Medical Biology, School of MedicineAcıbadem Mehmet Ali Aydınlar UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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