Molecular Pathogenesis of Liver Cancer
- 172 Downloads
Most frequent primary liver cancers are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma in adults, and hepatoblastoma in children. More than 80% of liver tumors are HCCs . This short review will focus primarily on the molecular pathogenesis of HCC; readers are referred to our previous reviews for a more comprehensive analysis [2, 3]. Worldwide, each year, more than 740,000 people die of HCC . The most efficient treatment for HCC is liver transplantation provided that it is detected early enough. Surgical removal and chemo-embolization of tumor nodules are other alternatives. These tumors are usually resistant to chemo- or radiotherapy . Only one drug, namely sorafenib, is approved for targeted therapy of HCC, but its efficacy is very limited .
The etiology of HCCs is well known. Chronic liver injury associated primarily with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses constitutes the most important cause of HCC. Other factors such as alcohol abuse and dietary...
The author’s research is supported by grants from the TÜBİTAK (109S191 and 111T558) with additional support from the Ministry of Development and Turkish Academy of Sciences.
- 2.Alotaibi H, Atabey N, Diril K, Erdal E, Ozturk M. Molecular Mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Current clinical oncology 2016—hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and treatment, pp 43–63, BI Carr (editor), Springer, 2016.Google Scholar
- 4.Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65:87–108.Google Scholar
- 20.Nault JC, Calderaro J, Di Tommaso L, Balabaud C, Zafrani ES, Bioulac-Sage P, et al. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation is an early somatic genetic alteration in the transformation of premalignant nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma on cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2014;60:1983–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar