Dehydration Status Predicts Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
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Dehydration is associated with a higher risk of poor outcome and venous thromboembolism in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, the relationship between dehydration and prognosis in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has not yet been investigated.
Consecutive CVT patients at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were retrospectively identified from November 2011 through January 2017. Dehydration was evaluated by blood urea/creatinine (U/Cr) ratio > 80. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 3–6. Factors such as age, sex, coma, intracerebral hemorrhage, and straight sinus and/or deep CVT involved were adjusted to assess the relationship between dehydration, and prognosis at discharge and long-term follow-up in CVT patients.
A total of 220 CVT patients were included, and 85 patients (38.64%) were dehydrated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that patients with dehydration had a higher risk of mRS of 3–6 at discharge (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.629, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.526–8.633, P = 0.004) and long-term outcome (adjusted OR 3.831, 95% CI 1.597–9.190, P = 0.003). Subgroup analysis stratified by potential factors that might be associated with dehydration, such as infection, vomiting, pregnancy, and/or postpartum, showed similar results. Multivariate Cox regression analysis further demonstrated that dehydration was associated with higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.301, 95% CI 1.025–5.166, P = 0.043).
The present findings indicate that dehydration is an independent predictor for short-term and long-term unfavorable functional outcome in patients with CVT.
KeywordsCerebral venous thrombosis Dehydration Blood urea/creatinine ratio Prognosis Mortality Risk factors
The authors thank Dechen Liu for statistical help.
Project development: Dr. Bo Song and Dr. Yuming Xu; Writing (original draft preparation): Dr. Kai Liu and Dr. Lulu Pei; Data analysis: Dr. Yuan Gao, Dr. Lu Zhao, Dr. Hui Fang, and Dr. Yusheng Li; English editing help: Dr.Bridget Bunda and Lindsay Fisher; Data collection: Dr. Yunchao Wang and Shen Li; Figures and tables: Dr. Sheng Guan, Dr. Xinbin Guo, and Dr. Haowen Xu.
Source of Support
The work was supported by the Grants from the Science and Technology Department of the Henan Province (No. 152102310058 to Dr. Bo Song), the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grants (Nos. 81530037 and 81471158 to Dr. Yuming Xu; No. 81571158 to Dr. Bo Song), and China Scholarship Council (to Dr. Kai Liu).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Ailiated Hospital of Zhengzhou University.
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