Organochlorine pesticides exposure in female adolescents: potential impact on sexual hormones and interleukin-1 levels

  • Gauri Bapayeva
  • Dimitri PoddigheEmail author
  • Sanja Terzic
  • Akmaral Zhumadilova
  • Saltanat Kulbayeva
  • Milan Terzic
Original Article


The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) on IL-1 axis in exposed female adolescents through an observational cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in Sary-Agach District (OCPs exposed girls) and Sairam District (OCPs unexposed controls), South Kazakhstan. The study included 524 female adolescents aged 10–17 years (OCPs exposed, n = 253; OCPs unexposed, n = 271). The main outcome was assessment of OCPs blood levels (correlating to pubertal development and sexual hormonal status) and IL-1 levels. The delayed sexual development and the hormonal profile in OCPs exposed female adolescents correlated to the blood levels of OCPs. Interestingly, serum IL-1α and IL-1β in girls living in contaminated areas correlated to OCPs blood levels as well. Both OCPs and IL-1 blood levels in exposed female adolescents resulted to be increased, but further research is required to establish if that might represent an additional factor contributing to puberty disorders and/or reproductive health issues.


Puberty Organochlorine pesticides IL-1 Sexual hormones 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gauri Bapayeva
    • 1
  • Dimitri Poddighe
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sanja Terzic
    • 2
  • Akmaral Zhumadilova
    • 3
  • Saltanat Kulbayeva
    • 4
  • Milan Terzic
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Research Center of Mother and Child HealthUniversity Medical CenterAstanaKazakhstan
  2. 2.Department of MedicineNazarbayev University School of MedicineAstanaKazakhstan
  3. 3.Department of Hygiene and EpidemiologySouth Kazakhstan Medical AcademyShimkentKazakhstan
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologySouth Kazakhstan Medical AcademyShimkentKazakhstan

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