CXCL1 and CXCR2 as potential markers for vital reactions in skin contusions

Original Article

Abstract

Detection of the vitality of wounds is one of the most important issues in forensic practice. This study investigated mRNA and protein levels of CXCL1 and CXCR2 in skin wounds in mice and humans. Western blot analysis of CXCL1 and CXCR2 protein levels showed no difference between wounded and intact skin. However, mRNA levels demonstrated higher expression of CXCL1 and CXCR2 in contused mouse and human skin, compared with intact skin. At postmortem there were no remarkable changes in CXCL1 and CXCR2 mRNA levels in contused mouse skin. Increased mRNA expression was observed in contused mouse skin up to 96 h and 72 h after death for CXCL1 and CXCR2 respectively. In human samples of wounded skin, increased CXCL1 mRNA levels were detected up to 48 h after autopsy in all 5 cases, while increased CXCR2 mRNA levels were observed 48 h after autopsy in 4 of 5 cases. These findings suggest that the levels of CXCL1 and CXCR2 mRNA present in contused skin can be used as potential markers for a vital reaction in forensic practice.

Keywords

Forensic pathology Skin contusion Vital reaction CXCL1 CXCR2 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

This study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of the Southern Medical University Institutional Board (Guangzhou, China). All sampling methods were carried out in accordance with regulations of Methods of extraction, fixation, packing and inspection of forensic pathology of The People’s Republic of China Public Safety Industry Standard (GA/T 148–1996) and Forensic pathology materials extraction, fixed operating instructions of Southern Medical University (NYSJ-JS-BL04).

Supplementary material

12024_2018_9969_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
ESM 1 (xlsx 12.6 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forensic Pathology, School of Forensic MedicineSouthern Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health and Tropical MedicineSouthern Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina

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