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Endocrine

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 201–209 | Cite as

Risk factors for prevalent diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

  • Rita Laiginhas
  • Carolina Madeira
  • Miguel Lopes
  • João Sérgio Neves
  • Margarida Barbosa
  • Vitor Rosas
  • Davide Carvalho
  • Fernando Falcão-Reis
  • Manuel FalcãoEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (DM1) has been implied as an important factor associated with the development of the microvascular complications. Our aim was to identify factors associated with prevalent diabetic retinopathy (DR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in DM1 people with early and late-onset.

Methods

We reviewed medical records from all DM1 people from the reference area of a tertiary center (about 340,000 persons). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between potential risk factors (sociodemographic, diabetes-related, co-morbidities, and laboratory parameters) and prevalent DR/PDR. We performed an analysis comparing patients diagnosed before (early-onset) and after (late-onset) 18 years of age.

Results

We included 140 patients in early-onset DM1 group and 169 in late-onset DM1 group. Longer duration of diabetes and HbA1c remained associated with prevalent DR in both groups after adjusting for potential risk factors. Nephropathy was associated with prevalent DR in the late-onset group but not in the early-onset group. Peripheral neuropathy remained associated with prevalent PDR when modeled together in the multivariate model. High BMI demonstrated a significative association with PDR in early but not in the late-onset DM1 group.

Conclusions

Although previous reports suggest that age at DM1 diagnosis may have a role in DR prevalence, the risk factors for DR in early and late-onset DM1 were similar for both groups. Duration of disease and lifelong metabolic control were the major predictors for DR in both groups. Nephropathy was associated with DR in patients with late-onset disease. Neuropathy was associated with PDR occurrence in both groups. BMI was associated with PDR early-onset DM1 group.

Keywords

diabetic retinopathy type 1 diabetes late-onset risk factors microvascular disease 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Laiginhas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carolina Madeira
    • 3
  • Miguel Lopes
    • 1
  • João Sérgio Neves
    • 4
    • 5
  • Margarida Barbosa
    • 1
    • 6
    • 7
  • Vitor Rosas
    • 3
  • Davide Carvalho
    • 4
    • 8
  • Fernando Falcão-Reis
    • 3
    • 5
  • Manuel Falcão
    • 3
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicinePorto UniversityPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyCentro Hospitalar de Entre o Douro e VougaSanta Maria da FeiraPortugal
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyCentro Hospitalar de São JoãoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and MetabolismCentro Hospitalar de São JoãoPortoPortugal
  5. 5.Department of Surgery and PhysiologyFaculty of Medicine of Porto UniversityPortoPortugal
  6. 6.Department of AnesthesiologyCentro Hospitalar de São JoãoPortoPortugal
  7. 7.I3S Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em SaúdeUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  8. 8.Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and MetabolismFaculty of Medicine of Porto UniversityPortoPortugal

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