, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 531–541 | Cite as

Reporting quality of 2014–2018 clinical practice guidelines on diabetes according to the RIGHT checklist

  • Qianmei Wang
  • Yuting Duan
  • Jielin Liang
  • Ze Chen
  • Juexuan Chen
  • Yan Zheng
  • Yaolong Chen
  • Chunzhi TangEmail author
Original Article



Reporting Items for Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) in HealThcare (RIGHT) checklist was used as a tool to assess the reporting quality of 2014–2018 CPGs on diabetes treatment, aiming to promote the application of RIGHT and improve the reporting quality of future guidelines.


We searched Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, VIP database, Medline, Embase, Allied, and Complementary MEdicine Database (AMED), and Medlive and Google Scholar (Google academics), and collected published CPGs on diabetes with published date during 1st January, 2014 and 7th November, 2018. CPGs on diabetes issued since 2014 were included and filtered by two reviewers independently. Then the basic information extraction and RIGHT evaluation of the included CPG are carried out.


A total of 34 guidelines were included, out of which 7 are for Chinese and 27 for other countries. Overall, basic information (domain 1) got the highest (64.66%) reporting rate, while financing and conflict-of-interest statements and management (domain 6) got the lowest (8.1%). For all guidelines, classification of guidelines (item 1c) was sufficiently reported, and description of the specific sources of funding for all stages of guideline development (item 18a) was not reported. For Chinese CPGs, financing and conflict-of-interest statements and management (domain 6) was most insufficiently reported, and only identification of guideline in the title (item 1a), corresponding information of the developer or author (item 4), description of basic epidemiology (item 5), and subgroup description (item 7b) out of 22 items were better reported than foreign guidelines.


Overall, the CPGs on diabetes during 2014–2018 adhered to ~41% RIGHT checklist, of which Chinese CPGs adhered less than that of foreign guidelines. It is suggested that the RIGHT reporting checklist should be endorsed and used by CPG developers to ensure higher quality and adequate use of guidelines.


RIGHT clinical practice guidelines reporting quality diabetes 



Reporting Items for practice Guidelines in HealThcare


Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research


Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation


Clinical Practice Guidelines


Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome


World Health Organization


Health Practice Guidelines



We thank the colleagues from Evidence-Based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Lanzhou University (Lanzhou, China), including Qi Zhou, Nan Yang, Yanfang Ma, Xiao Liu, Jingyi Zhang, Xufei Luo, Jianjian Wang, and Xiaoqin Wang for their kind suggestions and assistance about our project.


This project was funded by the First-class Discipline Construction Foundation of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China.

Authors’ contributions

Q.M.W. and Y.T.D. contributed equally to this work. Y.T.D. and Y.L.C. conceptualized the study design. Q.M.W. and Z.C. mainly conducted the evaluation. Q.M.W., Y.T.D., J.L.L., J.X.C., and Y.Z. wrote the draft and complement the methods of this study. C.Z.T. supplied the funding resource and provided revision suggestions. C.Z.T. is the guarantor of the project. All authors provided input on the direction of the study and content of the paper. All authors approved the final version of the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

12020_2019_2005_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary Information


  1. 1.
    M.J. Field, K.N. Lohr, Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program (National Academies Press, Washington DC, 1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Li. Evidence-based Medicine (People’s Medical Publishing House, Beijing, 2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Chen, Y. Chen, G. Gai, Y. Xie, Y. Wang, Reporting specification for practice guidelines for sepsis analysis based on right standards. Chin. J. Tradit. Chin. Med. 42(8), 1514–1517 (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Y, Y. K, M. A, A reporting tool for practice guidelines in health care: the RIGHT statement. Ann. Intern. Med. 2(166), 128–132 (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Tokalić, M. Viđak, I. Buljan, A. Marušić, Reporting quality of European and Croatian health practice guidelines according to the RIGHT reporting checklist. Implement. Sci. 13(1), 135 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Ke, Y. Mu, Y. Chen. Evaluation of the quality of the clinical practice guide published in Chinese mainland journals in 2016. Chin. J. Evid. Based Pediatr. 13(03), 194–199 (2018)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guidelines for the treatment of insulin pumps in China (version 2014). (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guidelines for grading diagnosis and treatment of Diabetes in Anhui Province, 2 (Anhui medicine, 2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Guo, Insulin therapy guidelines for type 1 diabetes in China. Chin. J. Diabetes Mellitus 10(8), 591–597 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. Jia. Guidelines for the Prevention and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in China (2017 Edn.). Chin. J. Diabetes 10(1), 4–67 (2017)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Z. Fang, X. Tong, J. Duan, Evidence-based clinical practice guide of traditional Chinese medicine in pre-diabetes mellitus. J. Tradit. Chin. Med. 58(3), 266–270 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Recommendations for dietary guidelines for diabetes mellitus. Med. Ther. Health Care 0(10), (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Yuan, Z. Yang, X. Shi, Guidelines for prediabetic intervention in the elderly. Chin. Geriatr. Health Care 16(3), 23–24 (2018)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guidelines on the Management and Prevention of Prediabetes. Acta Medica Indonesiana - The Indonesian Journal Internal Medicine 4(46), 348–359 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Shah, S. Sharma, P. Singh, A. Muruganathan, A.K. Das. Consensus Evidence-based Guidelines for Insulin Initiation, Optimization and Continuation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Supplement to J. Assoc. Physicians India 62, 49–54 (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Redmon, D. Caccamo, P. Flavin, R. Michels, P. O’Connor, J. Roberts, S. Smith, J. Sperl-Hillen. Diagnosis and Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ministry of Health, Singapore. Diabetes Mellitus - MOH Clinical Practice Guidelines (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Mata-Cases, S. Artola, J. Escalada, P. Ezkurra-Loyola, J.C. Ferrer-García, J.A. Fornos, et al. Consensus on the detection and management of prediabetes. Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society. Rev. Clin. Esp. 215, 117–129 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Korean Diabetes Association. Treatment Guidelines for Diabetes, 5th edn. (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clinical Practice Guidelines Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 5th edn. (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    AACE/ACE, Clinical Practice Guidelines For Developing A Diabetes Mellitus Comprehensive Care Plan. AACE/ACE Diabetes Guidelines, Endocr. Pract. 21(Suppl 1), (2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    The Japan Diabetes Society: Japanese Clinical Practice Guideline for diabetes 2016. Tokyo: Nankodo. (2016)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.P. Aschner, O.M. Muñoz, D. Girón, O.M. García, D.G. Fernández-Ávila, L.Á. Casas, L.F. Bohórquez, T.C.M. Arango, L. Carvajal, D.A. Ramírez, J.G. Sarmiento, C.A. Colon, G.N.F. Correa, R.P. Alarcón, S.Á.Á. Bustamante. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Colomb Med. (Cali). 47(2), 109–31 (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. General practice management of type 2 diabetes: 2016–18. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP (2016)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. London: NICE (NG17) (2016)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Qaseem, M.J. Barry, L.L. Humphrey, M.A. Forciea. Oral Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Practice Guideline Update From the American College of Physicians. Ann. Intern. Med. 166(4):279–290 (2017)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    International Diabetes Federation. Recommendations For Manag ing Type 2 Diabetes In Primary Care (2017)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Pharmacological management of glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. Edinburgh: SIGN. (2017)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    P.R. Conlin, J. Colburn, D. Aron, R.M. Pries, M.P. Tschanz, L. Pogach. Synopsis of the 2017 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs/U.S. Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Ann. Intern. Med. 167(9), 655–663 (2017)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.J. Franz, J. MacLeod, A. Evert, C. Brown, E. Gradwell, D. Handu, A. Reppert, M. Robinson. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Nutrition Practice Guideline for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Adults: Systematic Review of Evidence for Medical Nutrition Therapy Effectiveness and Recommendations for Integration into the Nutrition Care Process. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 117(10),1659–1679 (2017)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Bajaj. RSSDI clinical practice recommendations for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus 2017. Int. J. Diabetes Dev. Ctries. 38(Suppl 1), 1–115 (2018)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. London: NICE 2015. (NG28). (2017)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    AACE/ACE, Consensus statement: consensus statement by the american association of, clinical endocrinologists and american college of endocrinology on the comprehensive type 2 diabetes management algorithm. Endocr. Pract. 24(1), 91–120 (2018)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guidelines on second- and third-line medicines and type of insulin for the control of blood glucose levels in non-pregnant adults with diabetes mellitus. Geneva: World Health Organization. Licence: CC BY-NC SA 3.0 IGO (2018)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Kalra, S. Bahendeka, R. Sahay, S. Ghosh, F. Md, A. Orabi, et al. Consensus recommendations on sulfonylurea and sulfonylurea combinations in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus – International task force. Indian J. Endocr. Metab. 22, 132–157 (2018)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    2018 Guidelines on the management of diabetic patients. A position of Diabetes Poland. Clinical Diabetology. 7(1), 1–90 (2018)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Qaseem, T.J. Wilt, D. Kansagara, C. Horwitch, M.J. Barry, M.A. Forciea. Hemoglobin A1c Targets for Glycemic Control With Pharmacologic Therapy for Nonpregnant Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Ann. Intern. Med. 168(8), 569–576 (2018)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Diabetes Canada Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. Diabetes Canada 2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. Can. J. Diabetes. 42(Suppl 1), S1–S325 (2018)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    American Diabetes Association. 1. Improving care and promoting health in populations: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2018. Diabetes Care 41(Suppl 1), S7–S12 (2018)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    P.A. Dyson, D. Twenefour, C. Breen, A. Duncan, E. Elvin, L. Goff et al. Diabetes UK evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes. Diabet Med. 35(5), 541–547 (2018)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    C.A. Chong, I. Chen, G. Naglie, M.D. Krahn, How well do guidelines incorporate evidence on patient preferences? J. Gen. Intern. Med. 24(8), 977–982 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical College of Acu-Moxi and RehabilitationGuangzhou University of Chinese MedicineGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Hong Kong Chinese Medicine Clinical Study CentreSchool of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongChina
  3. 3.Evidence-Based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical SciencesLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Evidence Based Medicine and Knowledge Translation of Gansu ProvinceLanzhouChina
  5. 5.Chinese GRADE CenterLanzhouChina
  6. 6.WHO Collaborating Centre for Guideline Implementation and Knowledge TranslationLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations