Human heart shifts from IGF-1 production to utilization with chronic heart failure
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by multiple hormonal and metabolic deficiencies (MHD) [1, 2]. In this context, abnormalities of growth hormone (GH) and its effector insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play a distinct and relevant role [3, 4]. Circulating levels of IGF-1 have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in CHF, but the benefit of the use of IGF-1 as prognostic marker in CHF is still unresolved . Stimulation of IGF-1 receptors by the hormone can occur in response to the plasma circulating IGF-1 or to the local paracrine/autocrine production. Cardiomyocytes are able to produce IGF-1 mRNA and experimental conditions of heart hypertrophy are associated with an increase in such production, suggesting that modulation in local IGF-1 production might be an adaptive response to the need of local growth . However, no data are available on the handling of IGF-1 by the human heart in vivo in healthy subjects or in patients with CHF. Thus, aim of the...
A. Salzano received research grant support from Cardiopath, UniNA and Compagnia di San Paolo, as part of the Programme STAR. AM. Marra was supported by an institutional grant from Italian Healthcare Ministry (Ricerca Finalizzata for young researchers). (Project n. GR-2016-02364727).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study protocol was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Federico II University Ethics Committee.
Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in the study.
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