Primary adrenal schwannoma: a series of 31 cases emphasizing their clinicopathologic features and favorable prognosis
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Primary adrenal schwannoma (PAS) is a very rare benign tumor, and most of them have been described in case reports. This study aimed to analyze their distinct clinicopathologic features and follow-up data through the largest series yet.
Clinicopathologic features of 31 primary adrenal schwannomas were retrospectively studied. Imaging and histologic features were re-evaluated and summarized. Immunohistochemical markers were measured, including S100, SOX10, AE1/AE3, EMA, SMA, Desmin, HMB45, GLUT1, and Ki67. Follow-up of all cases was performed.
All the tumors were clinically misdiagnosed as nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma (NAA; 23/31), aldosterone-producing adenoma/aldosteronoma (APA; 3/31), cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA; 3/31), or pheochromocytoma (PCC; 2/31). Some 87% (27/31) presented with adrenal incidentaloma, and 13% (4/31) had a clinical symptom or unregulated hormone levels. They comprised conventional (19/31), cellular (7/31), plexiform (2/31), ancient (1/31), epithelioid (1/31) and microcystic/reticular variants (1/31) and had various histologic features. Immunohistochemically, all tumors (31/31) were positive for S100 and Sox10, with a low Ki-67 proliferative index. In the long-term follow-up (mean, 53 mo.; median, 56 mo.), none had evidence of recurrence and metastasis. Univariate analysis showed that OS and DFS were not associated with age; sex; tumor side, size, or number; adrenal-related symptoms; gross feature (solid vs. cystic); or any histologic feature (P > 0.9999).
PAS is an extremely rare tumor and mostly appears as an incidentaloma. Clinically, it tends to be misdiagnosed as other common adrenal tumors. This tumor has a benign biologic behavior and prognosis, without correlations with clinical or histologic parameters.
KeywordsAdrenal gland Schwannoma Clinicopathologic Prognosis
The study was supported by the Shanghai science and technology commission (17ZR1417500).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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