Inactivation of the Ras/MAPK/PPARγ signaling axis alleviates diabetic mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction through suppression of corpus cavernosal endothelial cell apoptosis by inhibiting HMGCS2 expression
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Diabetic mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMED) represents a significant complication associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) that greatly affects human life quality. Various reports have highlighted the involvement of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) in the regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which has also been linked with DM. Through bioinformatics analysis, HMGCS2 was determined to be a novel target among DM patients suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED), and enriched in the Ras/ERK/PPAR signaling axis. Owing to the fact that the key mechanism HMGCS2 involved in DM remains largely unknown, we set out to investigate the role of the Ras/MAPK/PPARγ signaling axis and HMGCS2 in the corpus cavernosal endothelial cells (CCECs) of rats with DMED.
Firstly, bioinformatics analysis was used to screen out differentially expressed genes in DMED. Then, to investigate the influence of the Ras/MAPK/PPARγ signaling axis and HMGCS2 on DMED, a rat model of DMED was established and injected with Simvastatin and si-Hmgcs2. The individual expression patterns of Ras, MAPK, PPARγ and HMGCS2 were determined by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis methods. Afterwards, to investigate the mechanism of Ras/MAPK/PPARγ signaling axis and HMGCS2, CCECs were isolated from DMED rats and transfected with agonists and inhibitors of the Ras/MAPK/PPARγ signaling axis and siRNA of HMGCS2, with their respective functions in apoptosis and impairment of CCECs evaluated using TUNEL staining and flow cytometry.
Microarray analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that Ras/ERK/PPAR signaling axis mediated HMGCS2 in DMED. Among the DMED rats, the Ras/MAPK/PPAR signaling axis was also activated while the expression of HMGCS2 was upregulated. The activation of Ras was determined to be capable of upregulating ERK expression which resulted in the inhibition of the transcription of PPARγ and subsequent upregulation of HMGCS2 expression. The inhibited activation of the Ras/ERK/PPAR signaling axis and silencing HMGCS2 were observed to provide an alleviatory effect on the injury of DMED while acting to inhibit the apoptosis of CCECs.
Collectively, the key findings suggested that suppression of the Ras/MAPK/PPARγ signaling axis could downregulate expression of HMGCS2, so as to alleviate DMED. This study defines the potential treatment for DMED through inhibition of the Ras/MAPK/PPARγ signaling axis and silencing HMGCS2.
KeywordsDiabetic mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction Corpus cavernosal endothelial cells Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 Ras/MAPK/PPARγ signaling axis Apoptosis
We would like to acknowledge the helpful comments on this paper received from our reviewers.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was conducted in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University.
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