Advertisement

Endocrine

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 513–519 | Cite as

Spexin in the physiology of pancreatic islets—mutual interactions with insulin

  • Maciej Sassek
  • Pawel A. KolodziejskiEmail author
  • Dawid Szczepankiewicz
  • Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek
Original Article

Abstract

Spexin is an interesting peptide, which may play an important role in the regulation of the metabolic homeostasis of an organism. Current knowledge on spexin expression, secretion, and influence on tissues and endocrine glands is very limited. We investigated spexin localization in the endocrine pancreas and measured its in vitro secretion from isolated pancreatic islets at various glucose concentrations, simultaneously monitoring insulin release. Also, gene expression for spexin and insulin was estimated. We found the presence of spexin inside beta cells and an increase in its release from islets after a short term and decrease after a long term following glucose administration. Finally, negative feedback loops between spexin and insulin were found, indicating the presence of multilateral relationships between glucose, insulin, and spexin inside pancreatic islets.

Keywords

Spexin Pancreatic islets Insulin Pancreas 

Notes

Funding

This study was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland 2017/01/X/NZ4/00466 MINIATURA grant and 2015/19/N/NZ4/00572 PRELUDIUM grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    O. Mirabeau, E. Perlas, C. Severini, E. Audero, O. Gascuel, R. Possenti, E. Birney, N. Rosenthal, C. Gross, Identification of novel peptide hormones in the human proteome by hidden Markov model screening. Genome Res. 17, 320–327 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.5755407.320 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Kumar, J. Hossain, N. Nader, R. Aguirre, S. Sriram, P.B. Balagopal, Decreased circulating levels of spexin in obese children. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 101, 2931–2936 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Kim, S. Yun, G.H. Son, J. Hwang, C.R. Park, J. Il Kim, K. Kim, H. Vaudry, J.Y. Seong, Coevolution of the spexin/galanin/kisspeptin family: spexin activates galanin receptor type II and III. Endocrinology 155, 1864–1873 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.Y. Lin, M. Zhang, T. Huang, L.L. Yang, H.B. Fu, L. Zhao, L.L. Zhong, H.X. Mu, X.K. Shi, C.F. Leung, B.M. Fan, M. Jiang, A.P. Lu, L.X. Zhu, Z.X. Bian, Spexin enhances bowel movement through activating L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel via galanin receptor 2 in mice. Scientific reports 5, 12095 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Liu, S. Li, X. Qi, W. Zhou, X. Liu, H. Lin, Y. Zhang, C.H.K. Cheng, A novel neuropeptide in suppressing luteinizing hormone release in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 374, 65–72 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Rucinski, A. Porzionato, A. Ziolkowska, M. Szyszka, V. Macchi, R. De Caro, L.K. Malendowicz, Peptides expression of the spexin gene in the rat adrenal gland and evidences suggesting that spexin inhibits adrenocortical cell proliferation. Peptides 31, 676–682 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.K.H. Wong, K.H. Sze, T. Chen, C.K. Cho, H.C.H. Law, I.K. Chu, A.O.L. Wong, Goldfish spexin: solution structure and novel function as a satiety factor in feeding control. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 305, 348–366 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Toll, T.V. Khroyan, K. Sonmez, A. Ozawa, I. Lindberg, J.P. Mclaughlin, S.O. Eans, A.A. Shahien, D.R. Kapusta, Peptides derived from the prohormone proNPQ/spexin are potent central modulators of cardiovascular and renal function and nociception. FASEB J. 26, 947–954 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.T. Hoang, H. Matsunari, M. Nagaya, H. Nagashima, J.M. Millis, P. Witkowski, V. Periwal, M. Hara, J. Jo, , A conserved rule for pancreatic islet organization. PLoS ONE 9, e110384 2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Sassek, E. Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P.A. Kołodziejski, D. Szczepankiewicz, P. Kaczmarek, M. Wieloch, K. Kurto, L. Nogowski, K.W. Nowak, M.Z. Strowski, P. Mackowiak, Resistin is produced by rat pancreatic islets and regulates insulin and glucagon in vitro secretion. Islets 8, 177–185 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Sassek, E. Pruszynska-Oszmalek, K.W. Nowak, Orexin a modulates endocrine function and viability of porcine pancreatic islets. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 68, 815–821 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Gu, Y. Ma, M. Gu, Y. Zhang, S. Yan, N. Li, Y. Wang, X. Ding, J. Yin, N. Fan, Y. Peng, Spexin peptide is expressed in human endocrine and epithelial tissues and reduced after glucose load in type 2 diabetes. Peptides 71, 232–239 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Porzionato, M. Rucinski, V. Macchi, C. Stecco, L. Malendowicz, R. De Caro, Spexin expression in normal rat tissues. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 58, 825–837 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Ma, M. He, J. Bai, M.K.H. Wong, W.K.W. Ko, A.O.L. Wong, Dual role of insulin in spexin regulation: functional link between food intake and spexin expression in a fish model. Endocrinology 158, 560–577 (2017)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.F. Ge, J.L. Walewski, D. Anglade, P.D. Berk, Regulation of hepatocellular fatty acid uptake in mouse models of fatty liver disease with and without functional leptin signaling: roles of NfKB and SREBP-1C and the effects of spexin. Semin. Liver Dis. 36, 360–372 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.K. Hodges, A.M. Teague, P.S. Dasari, K.R. Short, Effect of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and glucose ingestion on circulating spexin concentration in adolescents. Pediatr. Diabetes 19(2), 212–216 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maciej Sassek
    • 1
  • Pawel A. Kolodziejski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dawid Szczepankiewicz
    • 1
  • Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal Physiology and BiochemistryPoznan University of Life SciencesPoznanPoland

Personalised recommendations