The relationship between quality of life, cognition, and thyroid status in Graves’ disease
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To assess quality of life (QoL) and cognitive function among Graves’ disease (GD) patients with different thyroid status, with and without ophthalmopathy.
This is a cross-sectional clinic-based study involving 154 patients with GD (81.27% were female, mean age 45.6 ± SD 11.2 years) and 54 (35.06%) had ophthalmopathy. Data were collected after an informed consent from all patients was obtained. All patients completed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and Mini-Mental State Examination. Patients with ophthalmopathy also completed the Graves’ Orbitopathy Quality of Life Questionnaire.
Patients with hyperthyroidism presented a greater impairment in QoL when compared to euthyroidism group. A lower score in physical role functioning was found in both subgroups with active disease (hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism using thionamides). A lower score was also seen in visual function, only in patients with hyperthyroidism, without difference in appearance. No difference was found in cognition between patients. Younger ages at diagnosis, male sex, euthyroidism and absence of ophthalmopathy were factors associated with better QoL, as well as a shorter disease duration was associated with better recall, attention and calculation.
An impairment in QoL among patients with active GD was evidenced, even in those receiving thionamides and in euthyroidism. Ophthalmopathy was a factor associated with a poor QoL and no clear evidence of cognitive impairment was demonstrated.
KeywordsGraves’ disease Graves’ ophthalmopathy Quality of life Cognitive function Hyperthyroidism
We acknowledge all the patients who voluntarily participated in our study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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