Maternal soybean diet during lactation alters breast milk composition and programs the lipid profile in adult male rat offspring
To evaluate the effects of maternal dietary soybean during lactation on the milk composition, body composition, lipid profile and glucose homeostasis of dams and offspring at weaning (21 days) and adulthood (150 days).
Lactating rats were divided into: casein control (C): casein diet; soy (S): soybean diet; soy oil control (SOC): casein diet, but with fat content similar to the S group.
At 21 days, S mothers showed lower estradiol, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) in serum; and lower TC and TG in milk. The S offspring had lower body weight, body fat mass, TC, LDL, hyperleptinemia and hypertriglyceridemia. At 150 days, S offspring presented higher total mineral content and lower TC (v. SOC) and LDL (v. C and SOC), and hyperinsulinemia with lower glycemia v. SOC group, which had lower insulinemia with higher glycemia, TC and LDL.
Maternal intake of soybeans in lactation changes the lipid content of breast milk and programmed offspring for phenotype of the lower metabolic risk, with lower serum TC and LDL, and seems to protect the progeny of alterations in glucose metabolism despite the higher lipid content. The difference in fat content of breast milk and the higher isoflavones content of soy diet are possible imprinting factors that could program the offspring.
KeywordsSoybean Lactation Programming Lipid profile Glucose
The authors are grateful to Ms Leandra Natália de Oliveira and Mr João Pablo Fortes Pereira for technical assistance.
This research was supported by National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq) (Process number: 476867/2011-8), the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF) and Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP) (A. M. V. was a recipient of a UFOP fellowship, and P. G. B. and M. S. were recipient of a UFJF fellowship).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national guides on the care and use of laboratory animals (Wistar rats) and have been approved by the institutional committee [Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora at Minas Gerais, Brazil (protocol 018/2014)].
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