, Volume 59, Issue 3, pp 466–480 | Cite as

Regulation, signalling and functions of hormonal peptides in pulmonary vascular remodelling during hypoxia

  • Priya Gaur
  • Supriya Saini
  • Praveen VatsEmail author
  • Bhuvnesh Kumar


Hypoxic state affects organism primarily by decreasing the amount of oxygen reaching the cells and tissues. To adjust with changing environment organism undergoes mechanisms which are necessary for acclimatization to hypoxic stress. Pulmonary vascular remodelling is one such mechanism controlled by hormonal peptides present in blood circulation for acclimatization. Activation of peptides regulates constriction and relaxation of blood vessels of pulmonary and systemic circulation. Thus, understanding of vascular tone maintenance and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction like pathophysiological condition during hypoxia is of prime importance. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and renin angiotensin system (RAS) function, their receptor functioning and signalling during hypoxia in different body parts point them as disease markers. In vivo and in vitro studies have helped understanding the mechanism of hormonal peptides for better acclimatization to hypoxic stress and interventions for better management of vascular remodelling in different models like cell, rat, and human is discussed in this review.


Hypoxia Pulmonary vascular remodelling Endothelin-1 Atrial natriuretic peptide Angiotensin II Arginine vasopressin 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priya Gaur
    • 1
  • Supriya Saini
    • 1
  • Praveen Vats
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bhuvnesh Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied SciencesDelhiIndia

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