, Volume 59, Issue 3, pp 495–498 | Cite as

Particulate matter air pollution: individual choices for improving cardiometabolic well-being

  • Katherine Esposito
  • Giuseppe Bellastella
  • Maria Ida Maiorino
  • Dario GiuglianoEmail author


Exposure to small particulate matter (PM2.5) has become the 5th highest ranking risk factor for death, responsible for 4.2 million deaths worldwide. PM pollution is also associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and may contribute to deteriorate the already poor cardiometabolic outlook of the diabetic patient. Although most sources of outdoor air pollution are well beyond the control of individuals, there is still room for personal action. Health behaviors (smoking cessation, avoiding obesity, and increasing physical activity) may increase the poor life expectancy of individuals in the lowest income quartile of the Western population; moreover, a favorable lifestyle, (no current smoking, no obesity, physical activity at least once weekly, and a healthy diet pattern), may cut by nearly 50% the risk of coronary heart disease among people at high genetic risk. Things seem not immutable, as individual healthy choices do matter.


Particulate matter Type 2 diabetes Cardiovascular disease Health choices Cardiometabolic well-being 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine Esposito
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Bellastella
    • 1
  • Maria Ida Maiorino
    • 1
  • Dario Giugliano
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological and Metabolic Sciences, and AgeingUniversity L. VanvitelliNaplesItaly

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