, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 51–59 | Cite as

The effects of vitamin D supplementation on proatherogenic inflammatory markers and carotid intima media thickness in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

  • Shabnam Salekzamani
  • Abolhassan Shakeri Bavil
  • Hossein Mehralizadeh
  • Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
  • Aymaral Ghezel
  • Bahram Pourghassem GargariEmail author
Endocrine Trials



Metabolic syndrome may predispose to cardiovascular diseases. Since, in recent studies, vitamin D is advocated for cardioprotective roles, this study was designed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on proatherogenic inflammatory markers and common carotid intima media thickness in subjects with metabolic syndrome.


This randomized double blind clinical trial was conducted in Tabriz, Iran. Eligible subjects (n = 80) with metabolic syndrome were recruited thorough advertisement and randomized to receive either vitamin D (50,000 IU/week) or matching placebo for 16 weeks. Interlukin-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and common carotid intima media thickness were measured at the beginning and end of the study. The study was registered at (code: IRCT201409033140N14).


Sixteen weeks supplementation with vitamin D increased median of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and mean calcium levels (p < 0.001) in the intervention group. There was also a significant difference in parathyroid hormone level at the end of the study (p < 0.001). Vitamin D treatment reduced IL-6 level after 16 weeks (p = 0.027). Compared to baseline, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin levels decreased significantly in vitamin D treated subjects; however, there were no significant differences between two groups. No effect of vitamin D supplementation was observed in either common carotid intima media thickness or high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations at the end of the study (p > 0.05).


Vitamin D supplementation improved some proatherogenic inflammatory markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome. No changes of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and carotid intima media thickness were shown after 16 weeks.


Vitamin D Metabolic syndrome Inflammation Adhesion molecules 



This study was funded by the Research Vice Chancellor, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran); Grant Number (5/71/1353). The results of this article are derived from the Ph.D. thesis of Shabnam Salekzamani (No. D/36) registered in the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. The authors thank the staff of Nutrition Research center for their kindly cooperation in this study. The authors express gratitude to Dr. Navid Heydari for refining the manuscript language. The authors also appreciate all the patients for their participation in this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

12020_2017_1317_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (298 kb)
Supplementary Information


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shabnam Salekzamani
    • 1
  • Abolhassan Shakeri Bavil
    • 2
  • Hossein Mehralizadeh
    • 3
  • Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
    • 4
    • 5
  • Aymaral Ghezel
    • 6
  • Bahram Pourghassem Gargari
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Talented Students Center, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Nutrition and Food SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Student Research Committee, Faculty of MedicineTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Road Traffic lnjury Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  5. 5.Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of HealthTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  6. 6.Student Research Committee, Faculty of Nutrition and Food SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  7. 7.Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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