NeuroMolecular Medicine

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 42–53 | Cite as

Tinospora cordifolia Suppresses Neuroinflammation in Parkinsonian Mouse Model

  • Hareram Birla
  • Sachchida Nand Rai
  • Saumitra Sen Singh
  • Walia Zahra
  • Arun Rawat
  • Neeraj Tiwari
  • Rakesh K. Singh
  • Abhishek Pathak
  • Surya Pratap SinghEmail author
Original Paper


Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative central nervous system disorder, is characterised by progressive loss of nigrostriatal neurons in basal ganglia. Previous studies regarding PD have suggested the role of oxidative stress along with neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration. Accordingly, our study explore the anti-inflammatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia aqueous extract (TCAE) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra hydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated Parkinsonian mouse model. MPTP-intoxicated mice showed significant behavioral and biochemical abnormalities which were effectively reversed by TCAE. It is evident that TCAE inhibits the MPTP-intoxicated Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and its associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In MPTP-intoxicated mice, microglial and astroglial-specific inflammatory markers, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), respectively were increased while were significantly reduced in TCAE treatment. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, TNF-α, Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were found to be upregulated in MPTP-intoxicated mice, whereas TCAE treatment restored their levels. Additionally, anti-inflammatory factor Interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene was found to be downregulated in MPTP-intoxicated mice which were significantly restored by TCAE treatment. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression was reduced in MPTP-intoxicated mice, while its expression was significantly increased in TCAE-treated group. Our result strongly suggests that T. cordifolia protects dopaminergic neurons by suppressing neuroinflammation in MPTP-induced Parkinsonian mouse model.


Neuroprotection Parkinson’s disease Tinospora cordifolia Tyrosine hydroxylase Glial cells Neuroinflammation MPTP 



Authors HB, SNR, SSS, NT, and WZ were sincerely thankful to DBT, ICMR, ICMR, CSIR-UGC, UGC India for their respective fellowships. AKR is thankful to D. S. Kothari Post-Doctoral Fellowship, UGC, India. Authors are also thankful to the Head, Department of Biochemistry, B.H.U for providing the basic Departmental Facility and I.S.L.S, B.H.U for their central facility. The authors would also like to acknowledge Anand Prakash, Department of Zoology, B.H.U and Chandra Prakash I.S.L.S. for helping in fluorescence Imaging and Ashok Kumar Yadav, Lab attendant for his help in the animal care and other necessary assistance.


There is no external funding to carry out this research work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

12017_2018_8521_MOESM1_ESM.tif (2.4 mb)
Supplementary Figure 1 (TIF 2501 KB)
12017_2018_8521_MOESM2_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary Table 2 (DOCX 12 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hareram Birla
    • 1
  • Sachchida Nand Rai
    • 1
  • Saumitra Sen Singh
    • 1
  • Walia Zahra
    • 1
  • Arun Rawat
    • 1
  • Neeraj Tiwari
    • 1
  • Rakesh K. Singh
    • 1
  • Abhishek Pathak
    • 2
  • Surya Pratap Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Neurology, Institute of Medical ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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