Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 128–143 | Cite as

Principles of Allergen Immunotherapy and Its Clinical Application in China: Contrasts and Comparisons with the USA

  • Kai Guan
  • Bin Liu
  • Meng Wang
  • Zhi Li
  • Christopher Chang
  • Le Cui
  • Rui-Qi Wang
  • Li-Ping Wen
  • Patrick S. C. LeungEmail author
  • Ji-Fu WeiEmail author
  • Jin-Lyu SunEmail author


Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, and other allergic diseases has developed quickly. House dust mite (HDM), Artemisia (wormwood), Humulus japonicus (Japanese hop), Alternaria alternata, and Cladosporium herbarum are the five most common inhalant allergens in China. AIT has been performed in China for over 60 years. With the support of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA) and the Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA), the Chinese College of Allergy and Asthma (CCAA) was established in 2016 as a specialized branch of CDMA and is the main certification authority for AIT. Chinese allergists and scientists have made tremendous progress in the development of AIT. There have been many publications by Chinese allergists and scientists worldwide encompassing original research studies, systematic reviews, case studies, and clinical trials. Currently, conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is the preferred AIT in China, but sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is beginning to gain recognition. An increasing number of clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy and side effects of SLIT and SCIT. In China, HDM is the only commercial standardized allergen extracts in clinical use, whereas the others are crude allergen extracts. Besides standardized allergen extracts, other forms of hypoallergenic extracts are still being investigated and developed in China. Immunotherapy in China is similar to that in the USA in which allergen extracts can be mixed for SCIT. However, allergen extracts cannot be mixed for SCIT in Europe.


Allergen-specific immunotherapy Sublingual immunotherapy Subcutaneous immunotherapy Allergic rhinitis 



Adverse events


Allergen immunotherapy


Allergic rhinitis


Average Adjusted Symptom Score


China Food and Drug Administration


Chinese College of Allergy and Asthma


Chinese Medical Association


Chinese Medical Doctors Association




Complete peanut extract


Cough variant asthma


Dendritic cells


Dermatophagoides chitosan nanoparticle

Der f

Dermatophagoides farinae


European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology


Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles


House dust mite


Lactic acid bacteria


Mesoporus silica nanoparticles




Peking Union Medical College Hospital


Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire


Rush immunotherapy


Skin prick testing


Subcutaneous immunotherapy


Sublingual immunotherapy


Toll-like receptor 7


Total Nasal Symptom Scores


Visual analog scores


Funding Information

This project was sponsored by grants from CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (CIFMS:2016-I2M-1-003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81571568), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Allergy, Peking Union Medical College HospitalChinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Immunology and RheumatologyThe Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao UniversityQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College HospitalChinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA
  5. 5.Pediatric Immunology and AllergyJoe DiMaggio Children’s Hospital, Memorial Health SystemsHollywoodUSA
  6. 6.Research Division of Clinical Pharmacologythe First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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