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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 128–143 | Cite as

Principles of Allergen Immunotherapy and Its Clinical Application in China: Contrasts and Comparisons with the USA

  • Kai Guan
  • Bin Liu
  • Meng Wang
  • Zhi Li
  • Christopher Chang
  • Le Cui
  • Rui-Qi Wang
  • Li-Ping Wen
  • Patrick S. C. LeungEmail author
  • Ji-Fu WeiEmail author
  • Jin-Lyu SunEmail author
Article
  • 103 Downloads

Abstract

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, and other allergic diseases has developed quickly. House dust mite (HDM), Artemisia (wormwood), Humulus japonicus (Japanese hop), Alternaria alternata, and Cladosporium herbarum are the five most common inhalant allergens in China. AIT has been performed in China for over 60 years. With the support of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA) and the Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA), the Chinese College of Allergy and Asthma (CCAA) was established in 2016 as a specialized branch of CDMA and is the main certification authority for AIT. Chinese allergists and scientists have made tremendous progress in the development of AIT. There have been many publications by Chinese allergists and scientists worldwide encompassing original research studies, systematic reviews, case studies, and clinical trials. Currently, conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is the preferred AIT in China, but sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is beginning to gain recognition. An increasing number of clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy and side effects of SLIT and SCIT. In China, HDM is the only commercial standardized allergen extracts in clinical use, whereas the others are crude allergen extracts. Besides standardized allergen extracts, other forms of hypoallergenic extracts are still being investigated and developed in China. Immunotherapy in China is similar to that in the USA in which allergen extracts can be mixed for SCIT. However, allergen extracts cannot be mixed for SCIT in Europe.

Keywords

Allergen-specific immunotherapy Sublingual immunotherapy Subcutaneous immunotherapy Allergic rhinitis 

Abbreviations

AEs

Adverse events

AIT

Allergen immunotherapy

AR

Allergic rhinitis

AASS

Average Adjusted Symptom Score

CFDA

China Food and Drug Administration

CCAA

Chinese College of Allergy and Asthma

CMA

Chinese Medical Association

CMDA

Chinese Medical Doctors Association

CS

Chitosan

CPE

Complete peanut extract

CVA

Cough variant asthma

DC

Dendritic cells

DCN

Dermatophagoides chitosan nanoparticle

Der f

Dermatophagoides farinae

EAACI

European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology

HMSNs

Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

HDM

House dust mite

LAB

Lactic acid bacteria

MSNs

Mesoporus silica nanoparticles

OVA

Ovalbumin

PUMCH

Peking Union Medical College Hospital

RQLQ

Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire

RIT

Rush immunotherapy

SPT

Skin prick testing

SCIT

Subcutaneous immunotherapy

SLIT

Sublingual immunotherapy

TLR7

Toll-like receptor 7

TNSS

Total Nasal Symptom Scores

VAS

Visual analog scores

Notes

Funding Information

This project was sponsored by grants from CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (CIFMS:2016-I2M-1-003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81571568), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Allergy, Peking Union Medical College HospitalChinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Immunology and RheumatologyThe Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao UniversityQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College HospitalChinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA
  5. 5.Pediatric Immunology and AllergyJoe DiMaggio Children’s Hospital, Memorial Health SystemsHollywoodUSA
  6. 6.Research Division of Clinical Pharmacologythe First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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